From the Beginning of Settlement of the Islands till January 1994
Günter Schwarz & Rosalinda Morgado-Schwarz
All Rights reserved
about 30000 B.C.
Settlement of the Philippines by negroid people by a land bridge that still existed at that time between the Asian mainland and the today's islands.
about 3000 B.C.
First immigration of protomalaysian or old Malaysian people by sea route.
about 1000 B.C.
Second immigration of protomalaysian or old Malaysian people by sea route.
According to Chinese annals first contacts of the islands to the Chou Dynasty.
Annals of the Chinese Han Dynasty report about contacts of the islands to the Chinese Empire.
from about 200 B.C.
Immigration of deuteromalaysian or young Malaysian people by sea route.
from about 600
Starting a regular trade with China.
from about 800
Influence by Sri-Vijaya, a South-east Asian Empire ruled from Sumatra that had been influenced by India.
Immigration from Borneo. Foundation of Chinese trade agencies.
14th. and 15th. Century
Influence of the Hindu Indonesian Majapahit Empire to the southern islands that are part of the Philippines today.
Some Philippine Chieftains of the northern islands (especially the island of Luzon) have to pay tributes to the Chinese Ming Dynasty.
The Islam reaches the southern Sulu Islands coming from Borneo.
First Moslem Sufis (mystical teachers of religious education) arrive on the Sulu Islands.
1405 - 1417
The Chinese Emperor Yung Lo (1402 - 1434; Ming Dynysy) sends Admiral Cheng Ho with a large fleet of around 60 ships to Philippines. The fleet visits Pangasinan, Manila Bay, Mindoro, and Sulu Islands. The Chinese Emperor tries to get sovereignity over Luzon and sends Ko-ch'a-lao to the island as governor. This reign ends with the death of Yung Lo in 1424.
A tribute and trade delegation from Sulu Islands visits Peijing
Foundation of the Moslem sultanate of the Sulu Islands by sultan Sharf-ul-Abubakir from Palembang.
Foundation of the sultnate of Mindanao. Expansion of the Islam up to the center of Luzon Island.
Pope Alexander VI. (1431 - 1503, Pope from 1492 - 1503) divided the world into spheres of interest between Portugal and Spain.
Agreement of Tordesillas between Spain and Potugal. A plaque at Tordesillas renders its purpose and the content as follows:
"Here is the place where the diplomates of Castilian and Portugal who had been advised by cartographers of both coutries signed an agreement on June 7, 1494 that basing on pontifical consent divides the world into two spheres in the aim of its discovery and evangelization. All countries that belong to the Hispanic-Lusitanian community of America, Asia and Africa have been based on this agreement."
The Portuguese conquered Malacca in Malaysia of today that had been located at the important Strait of Malacca. Malacca had been a commercial center and one of the most important places of bartering goods in South-east Asia. Among other things following goods had been handled at Malacca:
. . . . . . . . .- Spiceries from the Moluccas
. . . . . . . . .- Sandalwood from Timor
. . . . . . . . .- Sugar from the Philippines of today
. . . . . . . . .- Silk, porcelain, musk from China
. . . . . . . . .- Gold, copper from Brunei
. . . . . . . . .- Rice, flesh from Java
. . . . . . . . .- Pepper, gold, ivory from Sumatra
. . . . . . . . .- tin from Malaya
. . . . . . . . .- Opium, cloth, dye from India
March 16: Ferdinand Wagellan (about 1480 - 1511) coming from Spain by passing the south tip of South America seized possession of the Philippine Islands in the name of Spain
March 11: First Holy Mass on Philippine soil on a Visayas Island ( the exact place is disputed but probably it is Limassawa). Magellan becam friend with the Datus (chieftains) Kalambo and Siaui.
April 7: Magellan landed on Cebu Island.
April 14: Magellan presented to the just baptized wife of Rajah Humab-on who had been the chieftain of Cebu Island the statue of Santo Niño. This statue of the Christ Child originally is from Flanders (Belgium). Till nowadays this statue is honored all over the Philippines by fiestas celebrated on the third Sunday in January.
April 27: When Magellan has tried to land on the Mactan Island by force he is killed by the chieftain Lapu-Lapu (about 1500 - ?). Later and till today Lapa-Lapu is celebrated as one of the national heros of the Philippines.
January/February: Although the Spanish claims to the Phillippines are denied by Portugal that refers to the division of the world by the agreement of Tordesilla (1494), Lopez de Villalobos names the islands "Laslas Filipinas" (Philippine Islands) in honor of the Spanish crown prince and the later King Philipp II. (1527 - 1598, Spanish king 1556 - 1598). He names the Island of Mindanao "Caesarea Caroli" (Emperor Charles) in honor of Charles I./V. (1500 -1558, King of Spain 1516 - 1556 and as Charles V. Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire 1519 - 1558).
1565 - 1898
The Philippines as Spanish Crown Colony
The territory of the Spanish colony of the Philippines differs from the territory of the today Republic of the Philippines as follws:
. . . . . . . . .- the Island of Guam,
. . . . . . . . .- the Mariane Islands,
. . . . . . . . .- the Caroline Islands,
. . . . . . . . .- and the Palaw Islands
also belonged to the Spanish colony of the Philippines at that time.
Although the Spaniards claim the sovereignity of the total Philippine archipelago they can not exercice it at:
. . . . . . . . .- a big part of Mindanao and oon the Sulu Islands since the Filipino Moslems (Moros) never have been really conquered by the Spaniards,
. . . . . . . . .- the mountainous regions of central Luzon and the central Visayas Islands since the mountain people of the Ifugaos, Igorots and others always succeed to defend themselves from any conquest attempts of the Spaniards.
Several times (among others 1619 and 1621) the Spanish king has been advised to give up the not profitable province or to change it against Brasil with Portugal. But every time the priests in religious orders succed to prevent the king to do so "in the name of God's honor and his glory".
Most Spaniards live inside Intramuros (within the city wall) in Manila. The Spaniards who live outside Manila are mainly priests and most of them are monks. Midth of the 17th. century there are 254 monks and 60 priests living outside Manila. The church and the holy order are a desisive factor in the economy.
Spain repays loyalty to the crown of sailors and soldiers by so-called "encomiendas" that are estates. First, these "encomiendas" are lent for two generations and starting 1636 even for three. Afterwards they fall back to the crown. The vassals of the "encomiendas" mostly live at Manila and the profit they get of their "encomiendas" is mainly collected by intermediaries. In addition the "encomiendas" also entitle to the following income and services that otherwise is entitled to to the king:
. . . . . . . . .- Polo: Socage. The socage lasts 40 days per year for all males from the age of 16 till 60 years and staring in 1884 "nothing but" 15 days. Members of the native elite the "principalia" can be released from it by paying a certain compensation.
. . . . . . . . .- Bandala: Annual tax per family 1 Peso, starting 1851 1½ Pesos. In 1884 the "bandala" is replaced by the "cedula" (poll tax)
While collecting the "polo" of the ones who belong to the elite and the "bandala", the population is fully exposed to the despotism of any officials, monks, and intermediaries. The "encomiendas system" excists in the Philippines till the beginning of the 19th. century meaning much more time than in any Spanish colony of Latin America
There is a complete unity among the church and the state. The Roman-Catholic Religion is state religion. Outside Manila the local priests are the real sovereigns since they unite the following positions:
. . . . . . . . .- Ritual and magic
. . . . . . . . .- Father confessor
. . . . . . . . .- Registrar
. . . . . . . . .- Tax-collector
. . . . . . . . .- Supervisor of the public education
. . . . . . . . .- Supervisor of the popular justice
. . . . . . . . .- Supervisor of local elections
In addition there still is the economic power according to the large estates of the relgious orders. There the population has to serve its annual "polo" and, too, it is struggled by taxes and by economic dependency.
Because of the exposed position of the monks liberal minded Filipinos simply call this type of rule in the Philippines during the 19th. century "frailocracia" (monkocracy). The monks, however, call all their critics just "filibusteros" (traitors).
1565 - 1821
Spanish Crown Colony ruled by the Viceroy of Mexico
The Philippines are subordinated to the Viceroy of Mexico. The legal basis of the administration is mainly the "recopilación de Leyes de las Islas" (compendium of laws for Indios) known as "leyes de Indias" (Indian laws). In 1680 the "recoplilación" has been printed and published by order of Charles II. It completely consists of 64 compendiums of laws of nine books that are subdivided in "titulos" (articles).
The administration is hierarchically structured:
. . . . . . . . .- King of Spain, advised and supported vy the council of the Indian possessions
. . . . . . . . .- Viceroy of Mexico
. . . . . . . . .- Governor-general in Manila
. . . . . . . . .- Province and City Capiains
. . . . . . . . .- Gobernadorcillos (Filipinos ruling "pueblos" resp. small towns and villages who are elected annually)
. . . . . . . . .- Cabezas de barangay, tax collectors on the lowest level
However, you must not imagine the Philippines to be ruled by a properly centralized Spanish administrative machinery since the interests on all levels in policy, in administration and in economy very often frankly commit abuse of their positions and corruption.
In religious respects the Philippines are subordinated to the jurisdiction of Mexico. The "Holy Inquisition" established in Mexico in 1536 is represented in Manila by a commissioner since 1578. All white people who are suspected heretic are arrested at Manila and shipped to Mexico where they are given to the justness of the "Holy InNquisition". Filipinos and Chinese do not subordinate the inquisition. Till 1595 (foundation of the archbishopric Manila) the bishop of Manila is subordinated to the archbishop of Mexico.
A lot of the holy statues on the Philippines originally are from Mexico, i. e. for example:
. . . . . . . . .- Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage in Antipolo
. . . . . . . . .- The Black Nazarene of Quiapo
. . . . . . . . .- Our Lady of Guadeloupe in Pagsanjan (Laguna)
On the other hand the wood-carvings in the basilica of Guadaloupe and in the cathedral of Mexico City are made by Filipino and Chinese wood-carver at Manila.
Financially the Philippines fully depend on subsidies (real situados) of Mexico. According to the demand in average the Philippines are annually subsidized by 250,000 Pesos from the treasury of Mexico.
The close relationship between the Philippines and Mexico is also shown by the presence of a lot of Mexicans on the Philippines. The Mexicans, too, are called Spaniards like the Spaniards coming from the Peninsula. Consequently, a lot of the missionaries, traders, soldiers, and officers who are called Spaniards originally are Mexicans. In Acapulco there is a Filipino colony. The Filipinos produce palm wine that becomes very famous in Mexico.
Development of the population within the Mexican-Spanish era:
. . . . . . . . .1600. . . . . . . . .0,67 Mio.
. . . . . . . . .1735. . . . . . . . .0,84 Mio.
. . . . . . . . .1800. . . . . . . . .1,60 Mio.
The Spaniards and the Mexicans are just a tiny minority in the Philippines:
At the beginning of the 17th. Century there are approximately 2,000 persons (about 400 of them are priests) and in the 19th. Century there are about 4,000 people.
March 27: Miguel López begins to conquer the Philippines. Start of the Spanish colonialism. The Philippines are subordinated to the Viceroy of Mexico.
April: The Island of Cebu is conquered. Foundation of Cebu City. Augustine monks start their missionary work.
June 4: Agreement with Rajah Tupas and other chieftains of Cebu Island. The chieftains accept the supremacy and "friendship" of Spain.
Felipe de Salcedo discovers the sea route from Cebu City to Acapulco at Mexico.
1565 - 1570
Begin of the galleon trade between the Philippines and Mexico. (see: 1593 - 1813)
1567 - 69
Legazpi is urged by a Portuguese siege (from September/October 1967) and several hostile attacks by natives to shift the first Spanish settlement from Cebu to Panay.
The Augustine missionary Martin de Rada writes about the Filipinos to the Viceroy of Mexico:
"They can be converted and adopt our faith easily ... the fear with which God has inspired them is great, for no matter how large may be the village, when a dozen Spaniards go for it, the natives come out immediately with their hands tied and beg for peace."
1570 - 71
Martin de Goiti defeats by assitance of 600 warriors of Panay Rajah Sulayman /about 1540 - 1588) the ruler of Manila (Maynilad). On Mai 18, 1571 he seizes Manila in possession for the King of Spain.
Miguel López de Legazpi declares Manila as administrative center of the Philippines. Since then most of the Spaniards who do not belong to any religious order live in Manila.
China follows the request of Spain and opens its harbor Amoy (Xiamen) for the trade with Manila.
The Franciscans arrive om the Philippines.
In a secret English mission Sir Francis Drake (about 1540 - 1596) tries to set foot on the islands of Southeast Asia.
Philipp II. conquers Portugal. Consequently, Portugal is not a competitor anymore in the Philippines.
The Chinese in Manila are allocated to a part of town called Parian. Up to 15,000 Chinese dealers and traders live in Parian. In order to reduce the Chinese immigration, they have to pay additional special taxes:
. . . . . . . . .64 Reales for the residence permit
. . . . . . . . . .5 Reales taxes (bandala)
. . . . . . . . .12 Reales for the allowance to own a house
In 1590 Bishop Domingo de Salazar writes about the part of town Parianto the king:
"...The Parian has adorned the city so that I do not hesitate to affirm your Majesty that no other known city in España or in these regions possesses anything so well worth seeing as this: for in it can be found the whole trade of China ... workmen of all trades and handicrafts ... doctors and apothecaries ... There were also many eating houses where the Sangleys (Chinese) and the natives take their meals; and I have been told that these are frequented even by the Spaniards..."
Development of the Chinese population (above of all at Manila):
. . . . . . . , . .1571. . . . . . . . . . . . 150
. . . . . . . . . .1588. . . . . . . . . .10.000
. . . . . . . . . .1603. . . . . . . . . .ó0.000
. . . . . . . . . .1748. . . . . . . . . .40.000
. . . . . . . . . .1886. . . . . . . . . .67.000
. . . . . . . . . .1896. . . . . . . . .100.000
The Jesuits arrive in the Philippines.
The Dominicans arrive in the Philippines.
1593 - 1813
Monopolized Galleon Trade
By a decree in 1593 Kimg Philipp II. prohibits any direct trade between China and America. Just shipments via Manila are allowed. Thus the galleon trade is monopolized. Chinese products, above of all silk, are mainly delivered to Manila by Chineses. Here they are transshipped on to a Spanish galleon and shipped to Mexico after being paid by silver that is highly in demand in China. In order to keep Chinese goods short in America the only open harbor to unload the galleons is Acapulco. And it is not allowed either to sail more than once a year in any direction. To invest into he galleon trade is a very profitable business since in average the profit is about 300% of the used money.
The goods are brought from Acapulco to Mexico City, Puebla, Guadalajara, Vera Cruz, and to any other places by donkey caravans. Furthermore, some of the goods even are shipped to Guatemala, Ecuador, Peru, Chile ans Argentine.
Main goods of the galleon trade from Manila to Acapulco:
. . . . . . . , .- Porcelain and silk from China
. . . . . . . . .- Carpets from Persia
. . . . . . . . .- Pärfum from Arabia
. . . . . . . . .- Spiceries from the Moluccas
. . . . . . . . .- Cloth from India
. . . . . . . . .- Pearls and potteries from the Philippines
Main goods of the galleon trade from Acapulco to Manila:
. . , . . . . . .- The annual subsidaries (real situado) for the administration
. . . . . . . . .- Mexican silver Pesos in order to pay the Chinese goods
. . . . . . . . .- Cotton from Saltillo
. . . . . . . . .- Cocoa from Chiapas and Tabasco
. . . . . . . . .- Crimson from Oaxaca
The clergy directly participates at the galleon trade by their "pious" foundations, for example by the "Obras Pias" (pious trade). The "Obras Pias" are "pious" foundations that use their money to trade and they use the profit for more or less charitable purposes. The pious foundation called "Santa Misericordia" (holy pity) gets an annual profit of approximately 70,000 Pesos. The "Obras Pias" also is the first precursor of the banks of today on the Philippines and they give credits to any traders with vatious interest rates.
In Philippine Sea Manila is the only "international" harbor; but just Chinese, Spanish and Mexican ships are allowed to enter.
The monopolized galleon trade comes officially to an end in 1813.
August 9: At the request of the Bishop of Manila Domingo Salazar King Philipp II. orders to release all slaves and forbids slavery.
April 10: Pope Gregorio XIV. (Pope 1590 - 1591) threatens all who do not want to release their slaves with excommunication.
Manila bcomes officially capital of the Philippines.
November: The Igorots of Northern Luzon start a rebellion since they try to resist against their christianization. The Augustine monk Esteban Marin tries to convince them to subordinate themselves to Spain and to the Catholicism. But instead of becoming good Catholics the Igorots kill the priest. Therefore the Spaniards take badly revenge to the rebels.
An overthrow initiated by Chinese is suppressed. Approximately 23,000 Chinese are killed by the fights and by the following acts of revenge of the Spaniards.
The recollectors (Members of monk orders that interprete the rules of their orders very strict; the movement of fanatic monks was founded in 1588) arrive on the Philippines.
April 28: Foundation of the Santo Tomas University at Manila by the Dominicans. First it is a pure priest seminary. In 1616 it is changed into the Coligio de Santo Tomas de Nuestra Señora del Rosario (College of Santo Tomas of our Virgin of Rosary). In 1785 the college gets the epithet "real" (royal) by the Spanish king.
April 13: The Spaniards destroy in the battle of Playa Honda three Dutch ships. This sea battle is just one among numerous Dutch attacks against the Philippines in the beginning of the 17th. century.
1621 - 1622
On the island of Bohol a priest of the traditional religion called Tamblot appeals to the Filipinos to return to the former traditional religion. It is time to free from the Spanish suppression since the ancestors and Gods assist the people. Therefore approximately 2,000 Boholanos start a rebellion that is brutally put down on New Year's day in 1622.
The Spaniards defeat the Dutch fleet near the island of Corregidor at the entrance of Manila Bay. The victory is ascribed to Mary the Virgin of Rosary. Therefore in Quezon City her statue is annually celebrated on each second Sunday in October by a big fiesta (festival).
The Dutch conquer the Moluccas. From that time less Spanish ships are threatened and attacked by Dutch ships.
1744 - 1829
Rebellion on the Island Bohol. Cause: The Jesuit Gaspar Marales tries to throw man into prison because of break with Christianity. However, the man defends himself and kills a native policeman before he, himself, is killed. The Jesuit monk denies a Christian burial to the man and so his brother Francisco Dagohoy swears to take revenge for that offence. After around 20,000 men have joined him he starts a revolt and the rebels establish their own rebel state in the mountainous region of the island. It lasts till 1829 that the Spaniards are able to quell this resistance movement of Bohol.
1745 - 1746
There are several revolts of farmers around Manila since the monk orders appropriate some estates by violance. Therefore the governor general dispossesses the orders but he loses the following lawsuit with the monks and consequently, the orders can keep "their estates".
The Jesuit monk José Calvo recommands to the Spanish Crown to start direct trade between Spain and the Philippines.
1762 - 1764
Occupation by the Britsh East India Company
During the Seven-Years-War (1756 - 1763) between Spain and England the British East India Company from Madras (India) conquers Manila on October 5, 1762 and it occupies the city. According to the peace treaty of Paris dated February 10, 1763 Great Britain has to give back the Philippines to Spain again. Of cause some weeks and even some Months pass till this news reaches Manila and so the Spaniards do not get back the city before May 31, 1763.
Diego Silang (1730 - 1763) leads a rebellion against the Spaniards outside Manila from December 1762 till Mai 1763. He demands the abolition of taxes and the socages. The British welcome him as an ally. Silang is murdered by a Spanish mestizo in 1763.
King Charles III. (1716 - 88; Spanish King 1759 - 1788) orders to open direct trade between Spain and the Philippines. Till 1784 once a year a frigate sails from Cadiz to Manila and back to Cadiz again. Then the direct trade fails caused by the resistance of the Manila traders who are worried about their considerable profits from the galleon trade with Mexico.
1778 - 1787
Governor general José Basco tries to "develop" the economy of the Philippines. The natural resources ought to be used in order to free the Pilippines from its dependency on Mexico. He tries to implement modern production methods of cotton, silk, sugar, etc. by public circulars. Additionally, he plants about 4 Million mulberry trees in Camarines in order to make progress with the silk manufactory.
1781 - 1882
Tobacco monopoly by the state: Small farmers have to plant tobacco in large parts of Luzon and have to sell it to the government at prefixed prices. This system especially favors corruption, black market, and smuggle of tobacco products.
In order to get additional revenue the government creates further monopolies for example on wine (1786), gunpowder, cockfighting, and playing cards besides to the tobacco monopoly.
May 6: Governor General José Basco founds the "Sociedad Economico de los Amigos del Pais" (Economic Society of friends of the country). It is a charitable society that is based on the Enlightment. This society serves to the promotion of agriculture and handicraft trade in the Philippines. Some projects of the institution are:
. . . . . . . . .1784. . . . . . . . .- First exports of indigo to Europe
. . . . . . . . .1824. . . . . . . . .- Imports of birds from China in order to fight locust plagues
. . . . . . . . .1825. . . . . . . . .- Scholarship to eight Filipinos in order to get a training as dyers
. . . . . . . . .1829. . . . . . . . .- Imports of rice husking machines from Cadiz in Spain
. . . . . . . . .1837. . . . . . . . .- A reward of 1,000 Pesos to a French planter because of the production of an excellent coffee in Jala-Jala
. . . . . . . . .1853. . . . . . . . .- A reward of 2,000 Pesos to a Filipino who invented a machine to clean hemp fibres
. . . . . . . . .1861. . . . . . . . .- Foundation of the first agricultural school in Manila
The cultivaton of tea, cotton, poppy, and mulberry trees is propagated
Importation of agricultural implements, cotton, seed, andspinning-machines from USA
March 20: Governor General José Basco decrees it is not allowed to impound agricultural land, water buffalos (carabaos), and farm imlements and it is not allowed either to arrest any farmer in times they sow or they bring in the harvest.
March 10: Foundation of the "Real Compania de Filipinas" (Royal Company of the Philippines) by royal edict. The aims of the company are:
. . . . . . . . .- Direct trade between Spain and Asia - particularly direct trade of the Philippines with its mother country
. . . . . . . . .- Improvement of the working methods in agriculture and trade in the Philippines
In spite of some royal privileges and a generous supply with money by the king the company was not very successful. In 1834 when the harbor of Manila becomes a free port the company is bankrupt.
Installation of the Spanish wine monopoly. In 1807 it causes the "Basi rebellion" in Pidding.
1789 - 1791
Based on an order of King Charles IV. (1748 - 1819; Spanish King 1788 - 1808) the harbor of Manila is temporarily opened for nearly all ships from Europe.
January 23: Governor General Berunguer de Marquina submits to the spanish Crown a plan to reform the administration of the Philippines. His proposals are the followings:
. . . . .- Conversion of the Philippines into a vice kingdom like Mexico
. . . . .- Promotion of Chinese Immigration
. . . . .- Abolition of the monopolies on playing cards, gunpowder, wine
. . . . .- Sending of farmer families from Catalonia to the Philippines in order to teach
. . . . . . the Filipinos more effective agricultural methods
. . . . .- better pay to low paid officials and therefore cancellatiton of any trade privileges
. . . . .- Installation of a mint in order to stop the draining away from the Philippines
. . . . .- Permission for worldwide trade of Manila
First exports of sugar to the United States of America.
February 2: A Royal Decree prohibits any foreigners, except Spaniards, to reside in the Philippines. This decree is repeated 1807 und once again in 1816.
September 16: The citizens of Pidding (Ilocos del Norte) start the "Basi rebellion" caused by the wine monopoly by the state. Most of the inhabitants of Pidding are in the Basi production and trade. It is a alcoholic concoction of the natives. The revolt lasts till December 28.
1810 - 1821
Mexican war of independence. Partwise the war is financed by silver determined for the Philippines that has been stolen on its way from Maexico City to Acapulco.
1812 - 1814
March 19, 1812: Implementation of the liberal Spanish constitution of Cadiz. It demands - "drawn up by free people in order to free people" -the realization of human rights for all people living in the Spanish Empire. King Ferdinand VII. (1784 - 1833; Spanish King 1808 - 1833) repeals this constitution again on May 4, 1814.
End of the galleon trade. Manila is gradually opened to European traders who are not Spanish citizens.
February 1: the eruption of the vulcano Mayon claims about 12,000 dead and injured persons.
March 3: Revolt of 1,500 Ilocanos from Sarrat (Ilocos del Norte) led by Simon Tomas. They demonstrate against the revearsal of the liberal Spanish constitution of 1812. Very fast the revolt spreads all over the north of Luzon but it is put down already on March 6.
September: A cholera epidemic spreads from Manila to the neighboring towns and thousends of people die. The Spaniards scatter the rumor that "foreign elements" poisoned the water of the rivers in and around Manila in order to wipe out the whole native population.
1821 - 1898
Spanish Colony under direct administration of Madrid
Economical advancement of the mestizos (Spanish Filipinos metizos resp. Chinese Filipino mestizos). The Spanish Filipino mestizos mainly are descendants of monks and priests. Mestizos notice first the importance of agriculture especially the one of sugar, hemp, and coffee and later the one of rice, indigo, and cobra. Therefore they aquire as much estates as they can get. They regard the monks as competitors and consequently, they dislike the clerus but nevertheless they remain good Catholics. The family clans who are still leading the country till today are mainly descendants of the mestizos. They consider themselves as the pure or the genuine Filipinos and they contemptuously look down to the majority of the Philippine population.
"This rising social stratum calls itself Filipinos in an exclusive way that orients towards the urban life of Manila. Their roots are their wealth and they are united by their antipathy against the monastic orders but they do neither question Christianity nor the church as an institution. They do not include any of the numerous ethnic groups into their imagination about Filipinos either."
The administration of the colony also reflects the political instability of Spain:
- Within the 28 years from 1834 till 1862 Spain "uses up" 4 constitutions, 28 parliaments, and 529 ministers
- Within the 44 years from 1835 till 1879 the Philippines are ruled and administrated by 50 governors general. Just in the period from December 1853 till November 1854 there are 4 governors general. The average term of office of a governor general is only 1 year and 3 months.
- The Philippines are represented in the Cortez (Spanish parliament) from 1810 till 1813, from 1820 till 1823, and from 1834 till 1837. Since 1837 the Philippines are just ruled and administrated again by special laws.
Development of population 1829 - 1896:
. . . . . . . . .1809. . . . . . . . .2,1 Mio.
. . . . . . . . .1850. . . . . . . . .3,9 Mio.
. . . . . . . . .1870. . . . . . . . .4,7 Mio.
. . . . . . . . .1877. . . . . . . . .5,6 Mio.
. . . . . . . , .1885. . . . . . . . .5,8 Mio.
. . . . . . .`. .1896. . . . . . . . .6,3 Mio.
Development of foreign trade 1841 - 1894 (in Mio. Pesos)
. . . . . . . . .Year. . . . . . . . .Exports. . . . . . . .Imports. . . . . . . .Trade Volume. . . . . . . .Trade Balance
. . . . . . . . 1841. . . . . . . . . . 4,4. . . . . . . . . . . 3,1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7,5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,3
. . . . . . . . 1851. . . . . . . . . . 4,2. . . . . . . . . . . 4,0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8,2. . . . . .`. . . . . . . . . . 0,2
. . . . . . . . 1861. . . . . . . . . . 8,1. . . . . . . . . . 10,8. . . . . . . . .. . . . 18,9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-2,7
. . . . . . . . 1870. . . . . . . . . 28,0. . . . . . . . . . 25,3. . . . . . . . . . . . .53,3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,7
. . . . . . . . 1880. . . . . . . . . 23,5. . . . . . . . . . 25,5. . . . . . . . . . . . .48,0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-2,0
. . . . . . . . 1890. . . . . . . . . 25,2. . . . . . . . . . 19,3. . . . . . . . . . . . .44,5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,9
. . . . . . . . 1894. . . . . . . . . 33,1. . . . . . . . . . 28,6. . . . . . . . . . . . .61,5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,5
Development of the primary school system 1867 - 1898:
. . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Primary Schools. . . . . . . . . Pupils
. . . . . . . . 1867. . . . . . . . . . . . 593. . . . . . . . .`. . . .177.100
. . . . . . . . 1877. . . . . . . . . . .1.608. . . . . . . . .`. . . .134.000
. . . . . . . . 1898. . . . . . . . . . .2.150. . . . . . . . .über 200.000
Mexico secures its independence fom Spain. The Philipines are directly put under control of Madrid. Up to Mexico's indenpendence the Philippines have been governed by Mexico.
The Augustine priest Diego Cera finishes his works at the Bamboo organ of Las Piñas that he has started in 1816. About 900 of the 1,000 organ pipes are made out of bamboo. (From 1973 till 1975 this famous organ was restored in Germany by Hans G. Klais.)
September 6: Manila is declared as an international harbor by a royal decree that can be entered by ships of all nations. In the following period it causes the settlement and establishment of several foreign consulates and foreign companies.
Caused by the opening of the harbor to worldwide trade the production of agricultural products becomes of great importance to the coutry. Following Philippine products are enquired on the world market:
. . . . . . . . .- Hemp
. . . . . . . . .- Tobacco
. . . . . . . . .- Sugar
. . . . . . . . .- Copra
. . . . . . . . .- Rice (Exports to China via the harbor of Suan)
The government installs experimental farms in order to test new production methods of seed and of stock breeding.
1840 - 1842
Rebellion of the religious Brotherhood of Apolinario de la Cruz (Hermano Pule) (1815 - 1841). Hermano Pule intends to join a Spanish monk order but he is refused because of his Filipino birth. So in June 1840 he, himself, founds his own brotherhood that is called "Cofradia de San José". This brotherhood does not accept any Spaniards, mestizos, and Chinese. Therefore the Spanish governing body of the Church forbids the brotherhood. However, this action makes the brotherhood really popular and, finally, makes it become to a sect. The members of this sect believe they are invulnerable and they go into action against the Spanish army hardly armed and with holy amulets. Consequently, they are merciless beaten. In the following weeeks and months hundreds of Filipinos are executed as sympathizers of the brotherhood. Apolinario de la Cruz has been defending himself before his execution by saying he just wanted to act the way Spanish monks had taught him to act: "In the eyes of God all human beings are equal."
November 1: The camp of the "Confradia" (brotherhood) is attacked by the Spaniards and a lot of members if the brotherhood are cruely mowed down.
November 5: Brother Apolinario the founder and leader of the %Confradia" (brotherhood) is executed.
The Madrid Government sends the economist and diplomat Sinibaldo de Mas to Manila in order to examine the economy and the policy of the colony. His report "Informe sobre el estado de las Islas Filipinas en 1842" (Report of the State of the Philippine Islands in 1842) is issued in 3 volumes at Madrid in 1843. The most important recommandation of de Mas are:
. . . . . . . . .- Opening of additional Philippine harbors to the worldtrade
. . . . . . . . .- Support of Chinese immagration to increase agricultural production
. . . . . . . . .- Abolition of the tobacco monopoly
The first steamers arrive at Manila harbor.
Governor General Narciso Claveria y Zaldua decrees that all Filipino have to adopt a family name. With this aim in view he distributes to all prvincial governors a list in alphabetical order containing Spanish family names. The provincial governors send just a part of this list to the local priest in charge of a parish. The eldest person of any family has to chose a family name for the whole family from the list. Caused by this system the villages and towns get family names that all start with the same letter and therefore, you can distinguish the local origin of many families. This list all Filipino family names are based on is known as "Claveria liat". The sense of the decree is to simplify the administration, to improve the taxation, and to register the population.
January 9: The British war frigate "Menander" lands in Zamboanga City with Sir James Brooke, British Rajah of Sarawak, on board. After some months stay in Zamboanga he sails on another British ship to the Jolo island.
May 29: Brook concludes a contract with the Sultan of Jolo. The sultan recognizes the British protectorate and welcomes British trade and shipping. However, the "Brook Treaty" is repudiated by the Spanish authorities in Manila as it endangers the Spanish sovereignty over the Sulu Islands.
August 1: The "Junta de Autoridades" (government committee) of the Spanish government founds the "El Banco Español - Filipino de Isabela II" )The Spanish Philippine Bank of Isabel II.) The opening capital comes from the "Obras Pias" one of the religious foundations. It is the first bank in the Philippines. In 1812 its name is changed into "Bank of the Philippine Islands".
The Philippines get their own paper money.
1858 - 1863
Spain sends 1,500 Filipino soldiers to Indochina in order to support the French in the effort to conquer Vietnam.
Installation of a monthly postal service between Manila and Hongkong.
There are 13 foreign trade companies in Manila: 2 Americans, 7 Britsh, 2 Swiss, 1 German, and 1 French.
The Austrian frigate "Novara" visits Manila from June 15 till 25.
March 15: Foundation of the Casa Moneda de Manila (mint of Manila). It is the first mint in the Philippines. The first coins with the strike "Filipinas" are pu in circulation.
The teacher training college "Escuela Normal des Maestros" starts its courses in Manila.
Revolution in Spain: Isabela II. (1830 - 1904; Spanish queen 1833 - 1868) is deposed. As consequence of the revolution liberal thinking civil servats are sent to the Philippines.
1869 - 1871
June 23, 1869: General Carlos Maria de la Torre becomes governor general. While holding official receptions he often proposes a toast to the liberty of the Philippines, he lifts the censorship on press, he respects the freedom of speech, he abolishes the corporal punishment, and he succeeds to calm down a revolt in Cavite without using any violant means. On April 4, 1871 de la Torre is replaced by the reactionary Rafael de Izquierdo (governor general 1871 - 1871). De Izquierdo brags about his opion that he has arrived on the Philippines "with the cross in the one hand and with the sword in the other".
November 17: Opening of the Suez Canal. The consequences of the improved communication with the western hemisphere caused by the opening of the Suez Canal the Spanish Governor General Blanco summarizes as follows:
"Caused by the opening of the Suez Canal a wave of fredom and progress reached the Philippines that we always had tried to stop instead of leading it into any profitable chanals."
1872 - 1896
The movementof liberal reforms in a peaceful way without using any violance is called "Propaganda Movement". Its intellectual leader are José Rizal (1861 - 1896), Marcelo H. del Pilar (1850 - 1896), and Graciano Lopez Jaena. The fundamental ideas of this movement are:
. . . . . . . . .- Legal equalization between Filipinos and Spaniards
. . . . . . . . .- Philippines becomes a regular Spanish province
. . . . . . . . .- Representation of the Philippinesa in the Cortez (Spanish parliament)
. . . . . . . . .- Philippinization of the Philippine parishes and expulsion of the Spanish monk orders from the islands
. . . . . . . . .- Human rights for Filipinos, i. e. freedom of speech, free press, assembly freedom, right to submit petitions
The freemason movement is very important to the "Propaganda Movement". A lot of members out of this movement are freemasons or they become freemasons. This way they try to attract more international attention to themselves and to get support from abroad.
Tumult in Cavite: On January 20, 1872 some soldiers and the workers of the barracks in Cavite start a walkout because of unjust treatment. Already within 2 days the strike is put down. The mestizo padres Burgos (1834 - 1872), Mariano Gomez (1799 - 1872), and Jacinto Zamora (1835 - 1872) are charged with leadership of this tumult. These men, who are affectionately called "Gom-Bur-Za" have been arrested, brought to trial, and executed in public in Manila on February 17, 1872. The Archbishop of Manila, Gregorio Meliton Martinez, refuses to unfrock the priests before their execution as the governor general has demanded.
"Whenever there is date on that we can fix the birth of a national consciousness it was the morning of February 17, 1872 when the people, i. e. the rural population, the city-dwellers, the intellectuals, mestizos, and natives spontaneously gathered in Luneta Park. The poeple changed the execution that also was meant as a warning to them into an event, into a triumphant fiesta that the Spaniards felt threatened and they fled behind the protiective walls of Intramuros. It already was a nation that greeted the three priests as 'our parents' and the people that had chosen such words exactly knew what they proclaimed by using them."
José Burgos (1837 - 1872), a Spanish mestizo, belongs to the spokesmen of the ones who show completely commitment to the equalization of native priests to the Spanish priests and he, too, critizises the monks. Howver, above of all the dispute refers to their profitable prebends.
February 12, 1873: Procamation of the first Spanish Republic. But the end of this republic comes already on December 1, 1874.
April: Opening of the first British bank in Manila. It is the "Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China".
Opening of the regular service with steamships between Manila ans Spain.
First telegraph line on the Philippine islands.
March 26: A contract between Spain and Germny and Great Britain bcomes effective that allows German and Britsh ships free trade with the Sulu Islands. However, these ships had to stop first in the Spanish held port of Zamboanga.
April 22: Leon Monssour gets a government lisence to operate a streetcar service. These rail carriages of steel and wood are drawn by just one horse and they can carry 12 passengers.
December 20: Governor General Moriones open the first midwife school in Manila.
First underwater sea cable to Manila.
August 3: Foundation of the "Monte de Piedad" ( Mount of piousness) by the Franziscan Felix de Huerta. This institution is basically a bank for the "Obras Dias", one of the pious fonds run by the monk orders. The bank exists still today.
March 6: Tax reform decree:
. . . . . . . . .- Reduction of the "Polo" (socage) from 40 days to 15 days per year.
. . . . . . . . .- Abolition of the "Bandala": (Taxation: 1 Peso per family; starting 1851 1½ Pesos)
. . . . . . . . . . It is replaced by the "Cedula" (poll tax). The "Cedula" depends on the income.
. . . . . . . . . . Poor people do not have to pay anything and rich people have to pay up to 37.5 Pesos per year.
Bustamante, Miguel Lucio: "Si tandang basio macunat." A racist lampoon written in Tagalog. The author describes the cast of mind of Filipinos in a way that they are uncabable to be educatied and they hardly are able to care for their carabaos (water buffalos) and to till their fields.
First edition of the newspaper "La Opinion" ( The Opinion). "La Pinion" critizises the monk orders and demands their expulsion from the Philippines.
March 1: Hundreds of Filipinos demonstrate against the friars who represent oppression, intolerance, and fanatism in Manila. The demonstration is led by Doroteo Cortes.They submit to the governor of Manila an anti monk manifesto. It starts with the words:
. . . . . . . . ."Long live the Queen!
. . . . . . . . . Long live the Army!
. . . . . . . . . Out with the Monks!"
Among others the manifesto blames the Archbishop Pedro Payo and the monks for:
. . . . . . . . .- Interference in matters of the independence movement
. . . . . . . . .- A self enrichment that is in contrast to the vow of poverty
. . . . . . . . .- Refusal to teach the Spanish language to Filipinos
. . . . . . . . .- To keep the Filipinos in obscrurantism
Teh manifesto calls for the expulsion of all monk orders from the Philippines.
The monks take their revenge by ordering the "Guardia Civil" (Spanish militia) to detain all signatories of the manifesto. In 1889 the Spanish sovereign grants an amnesty to all signatories.
January 12: Miguel Morayta founds the "Asociación Hispano-Filipino" (Spanish-Filipino Association). Its members are Spaniards who have been working in the Philippines as merchants or civil servants. The aim of the association is a thorough reform of the Philippines, i. e. the Philippines should be presented in the "Cortes" (Spanish paliament) and the school system needs a fundamental reform.
February 15: The first edition of the newespaper "La Solidaridad" (Teh Solidarity) is published in Barcelona. It is the newspaper of the liberal nationalist Filipinos who are living in Spain and belong to the Propaganda Movement.
Last edition: November 1895 - Publisher: Marcelo H. del Pilar (1850 - 1896)
Graciano Lopez Jaena expresses the aims of the newspaper:
. . . . . . . . .- to publish frankly the unfortunate condition in the Philippines
. . . . . . . . .- to work peacefully for political and social reforms
. . . . . . . . .- to fight the dire consequences of Middle Ages and the representatives of reactionary thinking
. . . . . . . . .- to support liberal ideas and progress
. . . . . . . . .- to work for the legimate demand of the Filipinos in relation to democracy and fortune
The Spanish criminal law codex is ceased to be in force and it also remains valid on th Philippines under American rule (1998 - 1946) till 1931.
Begin of installation of a telephone network in Manila.
Governor General Valeriano Weyler establishes in La Carlota on the island of Negros an agricultural model farm that is called "La Grnaja" ( the farm). On this farm the first scientific agricultural experiments in the Philippines are carried out under the management of the agronomist José Sanchez.
Foundation of the first Filipino freemason lodge in Manila. In 1892 it is acknowledged by the "Grande Oriente Español" (Wide East of Spain).
June 26: Foundation of the "Liga Filipina" by José Rizal (1861 - 1896).
July 6: Arrest of José Rizal. Imprisonment in Fort Santiago (Manila).
July 14: Banishment of Rizal to Dapitan on Mindanao
José Mercado y Alonso (later: José Rizal) was born in Calamba (Luzon) on June 19, 1861. His father, a wealthy merchant and farmer, was of Chinese descent. His mother came from the Philippine upper strata of society. He went at school in a Jesuit boys' school in Manila. His elder brother Paciano (1851 - 1930), who had been a political rabble-rouser, had to hide from the authorities adviced his younger brother to give up the family name Mercado in order not to arouse any suspicion of the police. Henceforth the ten years old José called himself José Rizal. First he started his studies in Manila from 1877 till 1882 and then he continued his studies of philosophy and medicine in Madrid. After he had passed his examination for his doctorate in 1885 he went for further studies among others to Paris, Heidelberg, London, and Berlin. Within this time he also translated the famous novel and liberation drama "Wilhlem Tell" of the German author Schiller into Tagalog. In 1887 he published an own novel "Noli me Tangere" (The Social Cancer) in a number of copies of 2.000 at Berlin in Germany. In this novel he pointed the greed and lust for power out to the Catholic Church on the Philippines, to the hypocrisy of the monks, and to the inhumanity of the military. The Spanish cencors forbad the book but, nevertheless, it had its desired effect. Another novel and a lot of his essays that appealed to disobedience against the Spaniards were secretly handed out on the Philippines.
Just after the publication of "Noli me Tangere" Rizal went to Austria. There he met Ferdinand Blumentritt (1853 - 1913) who had been aa imperial and royal senior civil servant and a grammar school teacher in Leitmeritz (today: Litomerice; Czech Republic). Blumentritt was an excellent expert of the Philippines although he never had been on the islands. Blumentritt and Rizal became close friends. Rizal experienced this friendship as a "hug of two races". Still nowadays Blumentritt is widely admired as mentor of Rizal and as sponsor of the Philippine independence.
In 1887 Rizal returned home. However, some trouble with the Dominicans compeled him to leave the country again at the end of the year. He started to write articles for "La Sollidaridad", the newspaper of the Filipinos living in Spain, who worked for more human rights of the Filipinos. In 1891 his second novel "El Filibusterismo" (The Betrayal) was published in Gent (Belgium). He dedicated this novel to the three priests who had been executed because of rebellion in 1872 and who had been defamed as "pirats". According to Rizal they had been "victims of the evil that they had tried to fight".
In 1892 Rizal returned via Hong Kong to the Philippines and upon his arrival he founded the "Liga Filipina" (Philippine League)on June 26, 1892. Only a few days later on July, 6 1892 Rizal was arrested because of "smuggling in subversive papers" and on July 14, 1892 he was deported to Dapitan on Mindanao. When the Philippine "revolution" started in 1896 Rizal was sentenced to death on December 26, 1896 since he had been accused of having founded an illegal organization and having supported and initiated a rebellion. Already four days later, on December 30, 1896, Rizal was executed. Before his execution Rizal still wrote his most famous poem. Here are the first two stanzas:
. . . . . . . . .Ultimo Adios. . . . . . My Last Farewell
. . . . . . . . .Adiós Patria adorada, región del sol querida,
. . . . . . . . .Perla del Mar de Oriente, ¡nuestro perdido Edén!
. . . . . . . . .A darte voy alegre, la triste, mustia vida,
. . . . . . . . .Y fuera más brillante, más fresca, más florida,
. . . . . . . . .También por ti la diera, la diera por tu bien
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Farewell, dear Fatherland, clime of the sun caress'd
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pearl of the Orient seas, our Eden lost!
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gladly now I go to give thee this faded life's best,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .And were it brighter, fresher, or more blest
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Still would I give it thee, nor count the cost!
. . . . . . . . .Mi Patria idolatrada, dolor de mis dolores,
. . . . . . . . .Querida Filipinas, oye el postrer adiós.
. . . . . . . . .Ahí, te dejo todo: mis padres, mis amores.
. . . . . . . . .Voy donde no hay esclavos, verdugos ni opresores;
. . . . . . . . .Donde la fe no mata, donde el que reina es Dios.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .On the field of battle, 'mid the frenzy of fight,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Others have given their lives, without doubt or heed;
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The place matters not-cypress or laurel or lily white,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Scaffold or open plain, combat or martyrdom's plight,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .T is ever the same, to serve our home and country's need.
This poem is the most famous and best known poem in the Philippines still nowadays and the first line of the poem "Adios patria adorada" (Farewell, dear Fatherland) has been a standard quotation in the Philippines for more than 100 years.
The "Liga Filipina" sets itself the following aims:
. . . . . . . . .- Uniting of the Philippine archipelago into a stable, strong, and homogeneous body
. . . . . . . . .- reciprocal help and assistance in all cases of urgent need
. . . . . . . . .- Defence against any violanr acts und any injustice
. . . . . . . . .- Support of education, agriculture, and trade
. . . . . . . . .- Study and implementation of reforms in the country by peaceful means
July 7: Just one day after Rizal's arrest the militant "Katipunan" led by Andres Bonifacio (1863 - 1897 seperates from the "Liga Filipina". The "Katipunan" ["K.K.K." or "Kataatstaang Kagalang-galang na Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan" (Highest and most respected society of the people's sons)], too, refers to Rizal. It was its aim to:
. . . . . . . . .- unite all Filipinos
. . . . . . . . .- fight for the Philippine independence by all means
Andres Bonifacio was born in Tondo in 1863 as a son of a poor family. So he never has been to school and he became a self-educated person. Influenced by Rizal's writings he founded the "Katipunan" and he organized it as a secret society similarly to the masonic lodges.
Extracts from Andres Bonifacios (1863 - 1897): Mga katungkulang gagawin ng mga anak ng Z. LL. B. - ("Duties of the people' sons" = 10 commandments of the "Katipunan"). The "commandments" respectively the articles II and X say:
II. "Bear always in mind that the love of God is also the love of Country and this, too, is love of one's fellowmen."
X. "Punish any scoundrel and traitor and praise all good work. Believe, likewise, that the aims of the K.K.K. (Katipunan) are Godgiven, for the will of the people is also the will of God."
from: "Ang dapat mabatid ng mga Tagalog" (What Tagalog people should know.); Theodoro A. Agoncillo (1912 - 1985); Students' Philippine almanac. - Quezon City, Children's Communication Center, 1991, page 305
"What, then, must we do? The sun of reason that shines in the East clearly shows to our eyes that have long been blinded the path that we ought to follow: by its light we can see the claws of cruelty threatening us with death. Reason tells us that we cannot expect anything but more and more sufferings, more and more treachery, more and more insults, and more and more slavery. Reason tells us not to fritter away time hoping for the promised prosperity that will never come and will never materialize. Reason teaches us to rely on ourselves and not to depend on others for our living. Reason tells us to be united in sentiment, in thought, and in purpose in order that we may have the strength to find the means of combating the prevailing evils in our country."
Opening of the first rail link on the Philippines from Manila to Dapudan (about 125 miles).
The Benedictine friars arrive on the Philippines.
The first electricity company starts its work in the Philippines. - Electric light at Manila.
February: Start of the revolution against the Spaniards on Cuba.
In the opinion of Andres Bonifacio and other leaders of the "Katipunan" it was about time to start a revolution against the Spaniards. But José Rizal who prefered to follow the argumentation of Blumentritt thought that it was too early to start a revolution at that time. And, besides, the "Katipunan" did not have any sufficient military strike power yet and it could count neither on any deserters of the army and nor on any support from abroad. Therefore, Rizal fordbad to start any revolution in his name. Nevertheless, the "Katipunan" started its rebellion with the battle cry: "Long live the the Philippine independence!" and it risked the armed revolution, but within a few days it was nipped in the bud. So Emilio Aguinaldo (1869 - 1964) took over the leadership of the "Katipunan". Led by Aguinaldo the "Katipunan" caused a lot of problems to the Spaniards by using a guerilla warfare. The intellectual Apolinario Mabini (1864 - 1903) was the chief adviser of Aguinaldo.
Emilio Aguinaldo was born as son of the local governor of Cavite on the island of Luzon. Contrary to Bonifacio he belonged to the Philippine elite. His main qualities were his capability to lead military operations and the knowledge to go to war by guerilla warfare.
December 26: José Rizal' s trial and condemnation to death in Manila.
December 30: Execution of José Rizals on the Bagumbayan Field at the walls of Intramuros in Manila.
January, 4: Execution of the 15 "martyrs" because of partizipation of the "Katipunan Revolution". Another 1,000 rebels were deported to Guam, Fernando Po, and to several other Spanish colonies.
February: José Rizal publishes his first novel, "Noli me Tangere", at Berlin. The first edition of 2,000 copies was printed by the "Berliner Buchdruckerei AG" (Berlin Book Printing Ltd.)
Mai 10: The "Katipunan" convicts Andres Bonifacio of "betrayel of the revolution" and he is sentenced to death by agreement of Aguinaldo. Still on the same day on May 10, 1897 Bonifacio was shot by his own former followers.
August: The government of the colony and the leader of the "Katipunan", Emilio Aguinaldo, start armistice negotiations.
November 1: First National Congress of the Philippines. Delegates from different areas of the country agreed a liberal constitution.
Dezember: Armistice agreement between the Spanish colony government and the "Katipunan". Emilio Aguinaldo had to go into exile to Hongkong.
April 20 till December 10: Spanish-American-War caused by the war of independence of the Cubanian people against the Spanish colonial power. The Americans supported this fight due to their own economic interests in Cuba.
20. April bis 10. Dezember: Spanisch-Amerikanischer Krieg aus Anlass des Unabhägigkeitskampfes der Kubaner gegen die spanische Kolonialmacht. Die Ameriker unterstützten diesen Kampf aufgrund eigener Wirtschaftinteressen auf Kuba.
April, 25: The USA officially declares war to Spain.
May 1: The American Asian Fleet led by its commander, George Dewey (1837 - 1917), destroys the Spanish Fleet in the Philippines and and American soldiers land in Manila Bay.
Subsequent to the victory of Dewey England, Germany, France, and Japan send their fleets that are based in the Pacific Ocean to Manila Bay in order to protect their respective interests in the Philippines. The German Fleet commanded by Vice-Admiral von Diedrichs had a higher fighting strength than Dewey's fleet and von Diedrichs did not obey Dewey's instructions at all. Therefore, the British fleet comes Commander Dewey to aid and just this superior strength of the allied fleet prevents von Diedrichs to start a "warlike adventure" with the Americans.
May: US president McKinley (1843 - 1901) admits that he is unable to show on a map of the world where the Philippines approximately are.
May 19: Emilio Aguinaldo returns to Manila from his exile in Hong Kong.
June 12: Emilio Aguinaldo (1869 - 1964) declares the independence of the Philippines and he declares himself as an interims dictator.
July: The "Katipunan" led by Emilio Aguinaldo agrees a peace treaty with the Spaniards under the condition to get safe conduct and to receive a high compensation of about 400.000 Pesos (800,000 USD). Aguinaldo and some of his close followers leave the country and go to Hong Kong into exile.
"Consequently, you easily have the impression that the ideals of the revolution, a revolution that Thousends of people had been died for, was betrayed - betrayed for Spanish 'pieces of silver'."
August 13: Manila was conquered by the US Navy under General Arthur McArthur, the father of General Douglas McArthur (1880 - 1964), who became the American commander in chief of the Pacific war during World War II.
Starting September 15: National Congress in Malolos (40 km or 25 miles outside Manila). On sepetember 29 the congress ratified the declaration of independence of the Philippines. The "self-service mentality" of the delegates, who belonged without any exception to the upper class or elite, was especially proven by their ideas in relation to landholding on the independent Philippines:
"The estates should be taken from the hated monks, but it should not be given to the landless farmers who already had cultivated these fields for centuries, it should be handed over to the persons 'who matter' (men of means). They shoud become the new owners. 'This elite rewarded itself with the fruits of the revolution', sarcastically realized Renato Constantino and he called it the 'probably worst betrayel of the interest of the people'."
October: US President William McKinley (1843 - 1901; president 1897 - 1901) ordered his negotiators who negotiated with Spain the peace treaty to demand the ceding of the Philippines to America. In November 1899 he declared to some delegates of the Methodist Church his motives:
"True is that I did not want to have the Philippines at all. However, as soon as it became more and more realistic, like a gift of the Gods, I did not know yet, what to do with it. When the war against Spain broke out, Dewey, George Dewey, the commander of our Pacific fleet was in Hongkong. I ordered him to enter Manila and either to capture or to destroy the Spanish fleet, and he did it. The reason was a very simple one, since whenever he would had been beaten, he had not had any place on this side of the globe where to repair his ships and whenver the 'Dons' would had succeeded they might had crossed the Pacific Ocean and destroyed our coastlines in Oregon and in California. Consequently, he had to destroy the Spanish fleet and he did. But that was all I thought about up to then. When I realized the Philippines had been handed to us on a plate, I admit not to know what to do with it. I asked for an advice from everyone, but I only received some few ideas. First I thought we just should take Manila, then Luzon may be, and eventually still some more islands. Night by night I was walking up and down the halls of the White House till around midnight and I am not ashamed at all to tell you, gentlemen, that I even kneeled down sometimes and I started to pray and to ask God more than once for an idea and for his advice. And suddenly one night it came over me and I even do not know how, but it came over me and I decided
- that we cannot give it (the Philippines) back to Spain, that would be coward and dishonorable,
- that we were not allowed to leave it to France or to Germany that are our competitors in trade in the Orient. That would had been a bad deal and it had discredited us,
- that we could not leave it alone to its own, since the people are not ready yet to govern themselves and very soon they lived in anarchy and had a mismanagement even worse than the Spanish one,
- that we did not have any choice than to take it over and to bring up the Filipinos, to raise them, to civilize them, and to christianize them and in God's name we have to do our very best like we do for any other of our fellows Jesus Christ had died for.
And then I went to bed, fell asleep, and I slept well. Next morning I asked for the chief engineer of the war department and for our cartographer and I instructed them to put the Philippines on to the map of the United States and there they will remain as long time as I am the president."
November 14: The United States conquer whole Luzon Island. However, there are still a lot of activities of guerilla groups. The industrialist Andrew Carnegie (1835 - 1919) comments the promise of President McKinsey to civilize and to christianize the Filipinos as follows:
"About 8,000 of them have been completely civilized and sent to Heaven."
1898 - 1935
Colony of the USA
The territory of the Philippines differs to the one of the Spanish era as follows:
The Muslim areas of Mindanao and Sulu Islands and the areas in the Central Mountainous Regions of Luzon and of the Visaya Islands were conquered. The mountain people of Ifugaos and Igorots etc. belonged from now on to the Philippines. The island of Guam did not belong anymore to the territory of the Philippines; it became a colony of the United States and it got a special provision; it was called "territory". The islands of the Marianes, the Caroline Islands, and the Palaw Islands became German and they remained it till 1918.
From the very beginning the Americans involve the Filipinos in the administration of the colony, even in higher ranks (Presidents of the Supreme Courts, Secretaries of State etc.) In the "Philippine Commission", the government of the colony the Filipinos even take over the majority starting 1912.
Development of Population 1903 - 1939:
. . . . . . . . .1903. . . . . . . . . .7.6 Mio.
. . . . . . . . .1918. . . . . . . . .10.3 Mio.
. . . . . . . . .1939. . . . . . . . .16.0 Mio.
Within the American colonial time the agriculture achieved the following growth:
. . . . . . . . .- Agrarian Country. . . . . . . . .times 3
. . . . . . . . .- Animals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .times 3
. . . . . . . . .- Tobacco. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . times 3
. . . . . . . . .- Maize. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . times 4
. . . . . . . . .- Rice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .times 5
. . . . . . . . .- Lumber. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . times 6
. . . . . . . . .- Sugar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .times 6
. . . . . . . . .- Cobra. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .times 9
Extension of irrigated Rice Fields:
. . . . . . . . .1900. . . . . . . . . .27,000 ha
. . . . . . . . .1935. . . . . . . . .715,000 ha
During the American colonial time the Philippines experience a boom in mining in relation to gold, chrome, manganese, copper, iron, silver, asbestos, and oil. Just the financial value of the gold rises from 6.7 million Pesos in 1829 to 32 million Pesos in 1935.
The balance of trade of the Philippines does not make one single deficit - not even during the world economic crisis from the end of the twenties till the beginning of the thirties in the twentieth century.
December 10: The peace-treaty of Paris agrees upon the transfer of the Philippines from Spain to the United Sates of America in exchange for 20 million USD.
The "Anti-Imperialist League" is founded in the USA. It acts against colonization and it is joined by more than 30,000 members. The most prominent members are: Jane Addams (1860 - 1935, soceal reformer, pacifist and winner of the Nobel peace prize of 1931), Carl Schurz (1829 - 1906, politician and senator 1869 - 1875), Mark Twain (1835 - 1910, writer), William James (1842 - 1910, psychologist and philosopher), Samuel Gompers (1850 - 1924, labor unionist), Andrew Carnegie (1835 - 1919, industrialist). Among others they refer to John Quincy Adams (1767 - 1848, US President 1825 - 1829) who declared in 1821 when he had been Secretary of State;
"Wherever the standard of freedom and independence has been unfurled, there will America's heart, her benediction, and her prayers be. But she goes not abroad in search of monsters to destroy ... She well knows that, by once enlisting under other banners than her own, she would involve herself .. in all the wars of interest and ... of avarice, which assume the color and usurp the standard of freedom. The fundamental maxims of her policy would insensibly change from liberty to force ... She might become the dictatress of the world; she would not longer be the ruler of her own spirit."
January 1899 - March 1901
First Philippine Republic (Malolos Republic)
January 16: US President McKinley appoints the first "Philippine Commission" that is headed by Jacob Schurman. The report of this commission is the basis to appoint and to install the second "Philippine Commission" in 1901 that overtakes the government business from the military governor step by step.
January 21: President Emilio Aguinaldo promulgates the constitution of the first Philippine Republic. It is the first republic in Asia. The most controversial article is the article declaring the seperation between church and state. This article says:
"Art. 5 The State recognizes the freedom and equality of all religions, as well as the separation of the church and state."
The articles 6 till 32 comprise a liberal catalogue of civil rights.
February 3: Start of the Philippine-American War. The United States of America deny to acknowledge the independence of the Philippines.
March 2: Bishop James M. Thoburn of the "Methodist Episcopal Church of India" gives the first Protestant sermon in the Philippines. On April 22 the first Presbyterian missionaries arrive on the islands. In September the first Bibles are distributed. Starting 1900 further Prostestant demoniations follow.
March 9: Foundation of the "American Circulating Library". It is the predecessor of the "National Library of the Philippines".
June: The hot-tempted militant leader de Luna is murdered since he has made a lot of enemies among the "Katipunan" movement. It is said Emilio Aguinaldo has been informed before about the attempt.
August 20: The Muslim leaders declare in the "Bates Agreement" not to interfere in the Philippine-American War. First President McKinley agrees with this agreement but in 1904 the American Congress abolishes it.
The US Senate ratifies the peace treaty with Spain. Through it the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam finally fell to USA. President McKinley in his speech in front of the Congress:
"... The Philippines are ours, not to exploit, but to develop, to civilize, to educate, to train in the science of self-government ..."
Of course the USA are very interested in the Philippines because of its neighbourhood to China and the possibility to get a naval base is the Western Pacific region.
April 7: President McKinley instructs the "Philippine Commission" and reminds it that the government in the Philippines...
"...is not designed for our satisfaction or for the expression of our theoretical views, but for the happiness, peace and prosperity of the Philippines."
He demands from the comission:
"To promote and, as they find occasion, to improve the system of instruction already inaugurated to the military authorities. In doing this, they should regard as of first importance the extension of a system of primary instruction which shall be free for all and which shall tend to fit the people for acquire of citizenship and for the ordinary avocation of a civilized community."
. . . .(Quotation from: Students' Philippine almanac. - Quezon City: Children's Communication Center, 1991, Page 413)
September 1: The civil service is implemented by law.
December: Foundation of the first political party in the Philipiines after the American occupation. It is the "Federal Party". At the beginning it propagates the entry of the Philippines to the USA.
January: Establishment of a coverage, public school system by the USA. The elmentary school is free of charge for every one. A lot of teacher training colleges are founded. The lessons are held in English language. The first teachers are American soldiers.
March 5: The "American Circulating Library", predecessor of the "National Library of the Philippines" is delivered up to the Philippines.
March 23: Emilio Aguinaldo can be caught in Palanan by the Americans. That is the end of the first Philippine Republic.
April 19: Less than one month after his capture, Aguinaldo took an oath of allegiance to the U.S.
July 4: The Americans appoint William Howard Taft (1857 - 1930, US President 1909 - 1913) to become the 1. civil governor of the Philippines. Through it the military government comes to an end in all pacified regions. Unpacified, Catholic regions still remain under military governmental control till 1902 and the Muslim regions in the southern parts of the islands remain under military control till 1914.
August 23: 540 American teacher arrive at Manila on board of the steamship "Thomas". They are called "Tomasites" according to the name of the ship. Later, this name is given to all American teachers. In 1902 more than 1,000 American teachers teach in Philippine schools. It is the beginning of an education and training programm of the less privileged classes. However, priority has the training of native teachers and the establishment of public schools all over the country. Numerous native teachers have been trained and in 1941 there are just 17 American teachers left.
General Aguinaldo declares:
"By aknowledging the souvereignity of the United States throughout the Philippine Archipelago, as I now do, and without any reservation whatsoever, I beìieve that I am serving only my beloved country."
The English language becomes more and more the colloquial language on the multilingual Philippine islands.
February 2: Foundation of the "Union Obrero Democratica". It is the first trade respectively labour union in the country.
July 1: The "Philippine Bill" that is also called as "Copper law" passes the US Congress. It is the first constitution of the Philippines and it is scheduled to implement a civil government. The first time in the Philippine history there is a seperation between the church and the state on the islands.
October 1: The journalist Isabelo du los Reyes (1864 - 1838) and Pascual Poblete (1857 - 1928) founded the national church "Iglesia Filipina Independiente" that is indeopendent from Rome. Gregorio Aglipay (1886 - 1940) is apointed as first bishop of this church. In the long-term, however, the church is not able to maintain and in 1948 it joined the protestant Epyscopa Curch of the United States.
March 1: Census Day in the United States and on the Philippines. This day there are 7.6 Million inhabitants in the Philippines (2002: 83 Mio).
March 13: Foundation of "Meralco" (Manila Electric Railroad and Lighting Company, later: Manila Electric Company). Not before 1961 it is handed over to the Philippines. The only electricity company of Manila is infamous for its numerous "brown-outs" and "black-outs" till nowadays. (A "brown-out" is power cut of less than 24 hours and a "black-out" is more than 24 hours.)
June 1: The Reconcentration Act No 781 has ceased to be in force. It enables rigorous proceedings against rebellious Filipinos that are called "Bandolerismo" by the Americans.
Foundation of the Moro Province that covers most regions of the southern, western, and southwestern parts of Mindanao, the Sulu Islands, the Tawi-Tawi Islands, the island of Palawan and the Balabac Islands.
August 26: The "Pensionado law" has ceased to be in force. Based on this law able Filipinos get scholarship in order to enroll in American colleges and universities. In the following period a lot of Philippine university professors come out of these scholarship holders.
March 4: The rebellion of about 300 Muslims lead by Panglima Nasan is suppressed.
April: The Americans buy the landholding of the monastic orders by the socalled "Friars Lands Act". The first aim is to sell or at least to to rent out these landholdings on fair conditions to about 60,000 tenants and workers who have cultivated the land before. Beforehand the USA have striven for a land reform in general and for an agrarian reform of the monastic landholdings in particular. The Americans have negotiated about this case with the Vatican since 1902. End of 1903 the monastic orders agreed to sell about 90% of their landholdings to the USA at a price of about 7 Million USD.
The "Federal Party" that had been founded in December 1900 changes its name into "Partido Nacional Progesista" and it stands for the unrestricted of the Philippines. The leaders of the party are Manuel Quezon and Sergio Osmeña.
February 17: Foundation of the "Philippine Constabulary School"; it is the predecessor of the "Philippine Military Academy".
Mark Twain writes his "Comments on the killing of 600 Moros"
Freer, William B.: The Philippine experiences of an American teacher. - (New York, 1906) In this book he describes the American-Philippine school system of those days. In his preface he writes:
"This book is dedicated to all those Americans who set an excellent example and who teach all the best about Americanism to the Filipinos by their benevolent service, by their altruistic work, and under highly exhausting circumstances."
"Blackboard, slate pencil, papaer - and the American flag belong to the basic equipment of a barrio school." Very touching is the final scene. Mr. Freer tells an episode about a bird that is kept in captivity: "A farmer in a village freed it from his cage into freedom. However. some days later the police officers of the village brought back to him the injured poultry. Nasty crows had done wicked things to it till it was able to escape on to the roof of the presidencia of the municipal house. Therefore, the Filipino locked in the bird again since he was convinced the bird was not ready for its freedom yet - similar to the inhabitants of the Philippines. Finally there were nasty crows like Germany or Japan for example. This farmer is a good and thoughtful Filipino," remarks the American teacher Freer to the address of his fellow countrymen...
"...these well-meaning friends who are mistaken and who are called anti imperialists."
"...who do not want to see that the Filipinos are not able at all to guide their history themselves." And by regretting this fact Mr. Freer endeavours Kipling's famous 'The White Man's burden'.
The Episcopal Church opens mission stations and mission schools in the Central Cordillerass of the northern main island Luzon.
The "National Party" that, according to its programm, stands for the "unrestricted independence" of the Philippines agrees a secret agreement with the Americans signed by Quezon and Osmeña to trip up any attempt of the parliament that demands the independence of the islands.
First election of the "Philippine assembly" (Congress) that becomes the first free elected legislative in Southeast-Asia.
The congregation of the "Undefiled Heart of Maria" from Scheut in Belgium starts its Catholoic misionary work in the Central Cordilleras of Luzon.
Jun 10: Foundation of the University of the Philippines (UP) in Manila. It is the first state-subsidized university of the country.
The newly developed regions in the Central Cordilleras of Luzon form the Mountain Province. In this regions the Ifugaos and the Igorots resisted any Spanish attempts to colonize these people for centuries.
The "Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act" of the USA allows favourable special conditions to Philippine products on the American market. Among others the cultivation of sugar, hemp, tobacco, coconuts is worth to be exported. The landlords are the big profiteers of the act.
January 10: During an eruption of the vulcano Taal on the island of Luzon there are around 1,300 people killed and 13 villages totally destroyed.
November 9: In Manila the Young Men's Christian Association = YMCA establishes its first branch on Philippine soil.
The "Underwood Act" lifts any customs barriers of Philippine agriculture products in the United States.
May 1: Foundation of the workers union "Congreso Obrero de Filipinas". It demands working hours of of 8 hours per day and effective health and safety regulations for women and children.
July 27: Foundation of "Iglesia ni Kristo" (Church of Christi) by Felix Manalo (1886 - 1963). The "Iglesia ni Kristo" becomes the biggest independent church in the country. You easily can recognize the big churches that are always built likewise on the island of Luzon.
Felix Manalo Ysagun found a Holy Bible, read it and left the Catholic Church. First he became a member of the "Iglesia Filipina Independiente" (Independent Philippine Church), than he was a member of the Rizal-Worship Culorum, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, of the Presbyterians, of the Seven-Days-Adventists, and finally he founded the "Iglesia ni Kristo". When his Church succeeded more and more he cancelled the Ysagun from his name and furtheron he called himself just Manalo. In Tagalog language it means "triumph".
This year most probably the "Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi", the most popular among the Rizal-Worship-Churches was also founded by Antonio de Guzman who had been a friend of José Rizal (1861 - 1896). In it said that in 1938 Mateo Alcuran and Alfredo Benedicto heard a voice ordering them to go into the mountains near Lecheria (it is near the native town of José Rizal) and to meet Gaudencio Parabuac and Jovito Salgado. There the voice ordered them to worship Rizal furtheron. This church celebrates its holy masses in Tagalog language. Nowadays it runs a seminary and a school in Lecheria.
There were and there are some other Rizal worships. Some of them consider Rizal as the son of God and as Jesus Christ risen from death and they pray to him by prayers. These worships are called Culorums according to the Latin concluding remark: "in saecula saeculorum = till eternity"
1914 - 1916
Worldwar I: During the war approximately 6,000 Filipinos serve in der US Navy, another 4,000 Filipinos who are living on Hawaii join the US Army. The Philippines ofer to the USA further 25,000 soldiers, one submarine and one destroyer. A lot of Filipinos subscribe war loans that are called "Liberty Bonds" at an amount of abouit 40 Million Pesos, and additionally they contribute another 1 Million Pesos to the American Red Cross.
The last sultan of Sulu, Jamahul Kiram II. (1884 - 1936), transfers his political rights to the Americans by the "Carpenter Agreement".
The Americans enact the "Jones Act". This act becomes thr new constitution of the Philippines and it is in force till 1935. It replaces the "Copper Act" from 1902.
The "National Party" wins the parliamentary elections crushingly and it degrades the "Partido Nacional Progresista" that has been the leading party before almost to zero. Quezon becomes the first president of the senate and Osmeña becomes the speaker of the house of commons respectively of the congress.
August 19: The senate is formed and the American Congress is taken as an example. The United States declare solemnly to release the Philippines in its independence as soon as "a stable government will have been installed".
According to the "Osmeña Act" the Americans working in the public service of the country have to be replaced by Filipinos step by step. The result of this act is:
Persons in public services:
. . . . . . . . .Year. . . . . . . . .Americans. . . . . . . . .Filipinos
. . . . . . . . 1913. . . . . . . . . .2.623. . . . . . . . .. . . . 6.363
. . . . . . . . 1921. . . . . . . . . . . 614. . . . . . . . . . . .13.240
February 5: Foundation of the "National Federation of Women's Clubs". Its aim is the political emancipation of Filipinas.
November 28: The "Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company" is founded by a bill of the Philippine Senate.
First national Eucharist congress in Manila (Catholic congress in order to promote the Eucharist = Thankgiving).
The Philippine independence movement is supported by the American dairy farming and by the American worker unions. They try to stop the importation of Philippine dairy products and, too, the immigration of cheap Philippine workers who run into the American labour market.
August 26: Foundation of the "Communist Party of the Philippines" by Cristanto Evangalista. The communist movement of the Philippines is mainly influenced by Harrison George, the leader of the communist party of the USA. In 1938 the party melts together with the "Socialist Party" of Pedro Abad Santos.
A rebellion motivated by relgious reasons starts near Tayug (Tayug Rebellion). It is the first one among a lot of religious rebellions in the Thirties.
A revised version of the criminal law replaces the former law that still has been in force since Spanish colonial times in 1869.
March 24: US-President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882 - 1945, US-President from 1933 till 1945) signs the "Tydings-McDuffie Act". This act grants to the Philippines the status of a "Commonwealth". It gets a self-administration respectively a partial autonomy controlled by the Americans. After a period of ten years the Philippines will be granted its full independency. The American governor keeps the control of finances, defence, and international relations.
August: A "Made-in-the-Philippines Week" is called out by the slogan: " Buy Philippine products!" The aim is to promote the native economy.
November 19: The "National Economic Protectionism Association = NEPA" is founded to promote traditional, native products by the slogan: " Buy Philippines!"
1935 - 1946
Colony of the USA under Commonwealth-Status
American capital shares of the most important agricultural exportation industries (1935):
. . . . . . . . .Sugar:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .American capital = 33% (Filipino capital = 43%, Spanish capital = 23%)
. . . . . . . . .hemp:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .American capital= 53%
. . . . . . . . .copra:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .most American capital
. . . . . . . . .dried coconut products:. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . most American capital
May 14: A plebiscite agrees with the constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
July 4: Inauguration of the "Commonwealth of the Philippines". Manuel Quezon (1878 - 1944, president 1935 -1944) becomes the first elected president of the "Commonwealth of the Philippines". He is the first native who becomes president in one of the Asian colonies
January 12: President Quezon appoints Jaime C. de Veyra director of the "National Language Institute". This institute has the task to fulfill the constitutional amendment of 1937:
"development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing native dialects."
However, the term "dialects" covers the problem, since there are and there always have been a lot of different languges in the Philippines. There are at least 55 different languages that can be subdivided into 142 other dialects at least.
In 1939 a plebiscite shows the following figures in relation to the eight languages that are spoken by most Filipinos:
. . . . . . . . .Tagalog. . . . . . . . . . . . .4.1 Mio.
. . . . . . . . .Cebuano. . . . . . . . . . . .3.6 Mio.
. . . . . . . . .Ilocano. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Mio.
. . . . . . . . .Hiligaynon. . . . . . . . . . .2,0 Mio.
. . . . . . . . .Bicolano. . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Mio.
. . . . . . . . .Waray. . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.9 Mio.
. . . . . . . . .Pampango. . . . . . . . . . .0.6 Mio.
. . . . . . . . .Pangasinan. . . . . . . . . . 0.6 Mio.
December 14: The right to vote for women passes the parliament. A plebiscite about the right to vote for women shows that by far the majority of the women would like to have the right to vote. Therefore, an act passes the legislation that grants all women as well the right to vote as also to run for any public town/community authorities.
June 7: By the Commonwealth Act No. 570 Filipino, that is just another name of the Tagalog language, is declared to the national language of the Philippines starting on July 4, 1946. In 1959 Filipino is officially renamed into Pilipino. Among the Filipinos who are not native speaker of Tagalog the Pilipino language has been controversially dicussed up to today and there is hardly any one among these people who speak that language.
March 15: Maiden flight of the new Philippine airline "Philippine Airlines" (PAL) from Manila to Baguio. PAL has been the first Asian airline.
July 26: In view of the Japanese threat 100,000 Filipino soldiers have been integrated into the United States Armed Forces in the Far East = USAFFE and they have been put under the command of General Douglas MacArthur (1880 - 1964).
December 7: Japanese attack in Pearl Harbor (Oahu, Hawaii). Start of the Pacific War.
December 8: First bomb raid of the Japanese Airforce against American military bases near Manila.
December: The Japanese occupy the Philippine Islands by navy, air force, and army.
January 2: Fall of Manila.
March 29: At Nueva Ecija some leading members of the "Communist Party of the Philippines" found the "HUKBALAHAP" = Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon = People's Army against Japan. After the war the "HUKBALAHAP" is reorganized under its new name HMB = Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan = People's Liberation Army.
April 9: Fall of Bataan. The Japanese force about 70,000 Filipino and 10,000 American soldiers who have been surrounded and captured on the peninsula of Bataan to move off an "death hike". Just 4,000 soldier survive this "march" and the following Japanese prison camp.
December 2: Japaner found the potitical party called "Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas" = "Kalibapi" = "Society for Service to the New Philippines". The party leader becomes Jorge B. Vargas (1890 - 1980).
September 7: The "Kalibapi" ratifys a new constitution of the Philippnes according to the Japanese opinion.
October 14, 1943 - August 17, 1945
Second Philippine Republic ruled by a "puppet gouvernment" of the Japanese
The Japanese consider the Philippines as a part of their "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere". This name has only the task to circumscribe their tyranny in East and Southeast Asia.
All schools in the country are ordered to teach Japanese language and Japanese culture. These are obligatory subjects.
The second Philippine Republic that fully depended on the Japanese regime was recognized by Spain and the Axis Powers (Germany and Italy) and by the Vatican State, too.
October, 14: Proclamation of the second Philippine Republic by the "puppet president" José P. Laurel (1891 - 1959)
August, 1: Manuel Quezon, Philippine "Commonwealth" president died in exile.
October, 20: General McArthur and his American troops landed on Leyte island in order to free the Philippines. He was accompanied by the new Philippine "Commonwealth" president, Sergio Osmeña.
February, 3: After heavy fights with a lot of losses the Americans recaptured the completely destroyed Manila.
March, 15: Foundation of the "Congress OF laboratory organizations = CLO" (union of the workers' movements) by Hukbalahap. In 1948 the chairman, Cipriano Cid, and the CLO had to go underground, since the Hukbalahap and the communist party were forbidden.
April, 30: The US Congress discharges the Philippine Rehablitation Act thereafter the Philippines receives $800 million as remuneration for war damage. The payment of $300 million of that amount was governed by the parity Amendment for Philippine condition (cf. 1947).
1,1 million Filipinos died by the Pacific war.
July, 15: Foundation of the people front alliance "Democratic Alliance". The six delegates that will be elected in 1946 are not allowed to draw into the congress, since it is assumed that the forbidden communist party is behind the alliance. The democratic alliance dissolved again in 1948.
August, 17: José P. Laurel (1891 - 1959), president of the Japanese "puppet government" declares the end of the second Philippine Republic.
April 30: US Congress discharges Philippine Rehablitation Act. Thereafter the Philippines receives $800 million as remuneration for war damage. The payment of $300 million are made dependent on the parity Amendment of the Philippine Constitution (cf. 1947). 1,1 million Filipinos died in the Pacific War.
Dritte Philippinische Republik
"After independence in 1946, moreover, the Philippine central government effectively lost control over the countryside to regional politicians, some so powerful that they became known as 'warlords'. Reinforcing their economic power and political offices with private armies , these warlords terrorized the peasantry and extracted a de facto regional autonomy as the price for delivering their vote banks to the Manila politicians they supported."
"Thus, under the postwar Republic, local officials maintaining private armies had considerable control over police and the power to intervene in criminal cases to bring about arglo, thus setting aside the state's criminal law."
"In brief, the central state lacked the ability to enforce its laws and policies throughout its territory. It also lacked a monopoly on armed force, even in 'normal' situations, a failing the centrifugal tendencies of which were manifested by the existence of private armies of local power holders at all levels from the village to the province. ... In effect, the central state could not give orders to local officials as a right but had to cajole, bargain, and treat with them. The paralysis produced little administration, and much politics, for officials at each level of the system were forced to make 'arrangements' with all the autonomous elected officials below them in order to get their will done."
"If elected, the politician will repay the investment (of his financial supportes) many times over through low-cost government credit, selective enforcement of commercial regulations, or licenses for state-regulated enterprises such as logging and broadcasting."
"Under the Republic (1946 - 72), Philippine presidents used the state's licensing powers as bargaining chips in their dealings with national and local elites, thereby creating benefices that favored the dominant political families ... The Philippine political system was not based so much on the extraction of 'surplus' from the production of new wealth but on a redistribution of existing resources and the artificial rents - in effect, rewarding favored families by manipulating regulations to effect a reallocation of existing wealth."
To be continued
Abu Sayyaf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Phil. History (Chap. 1)