1986 till Today
Günter Schwarz & Rosalinda Morgado-Schwarz
All Rights reserved
According to the fact that there are only secondary recources available and in some cases we even had to consider rumors in order to investigate this subject, the following findings unfortunately are relatively scanty, fragmentary, and incomplete.
Should you, dear reader, have any secured and confirmed information about this subject, please, inform us (if possible) in the interest of all readers who would like to get information about this theme you can fairly rely on, at least.
Abu Sayyaf or Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)
The Abu Sayyaf Group took its name from Professor Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, an Afghan intellectual, who had preached an ultra-conservative Islamic ideology called Wahabi. Often they call themselves as the "Bearer of the Sword".
It is said that Abdurajak Janjalani, who is called the founder of the Abu Sayyaf Group on the Philippines, had been a mujaheddin combatant of a guerrilla group led by Professor Abu Sayyaf, that he founded in 1986. Later Janjalani himself adopted this - programatic? - surname.
The Moros in the Southern Philippines mainly belong to the sunnitic, wahabic line.
- The Abu Sayyaf Group maintained its bases mainly on the Sulu Islands, Basilan, Jolo, and the Tawi-Tawi Islands in the Philippines.
- The first members were mainly recruited on the island of Yakan.
- The Abu Sayaff troops were trained in Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Basilan and other remote places in Mindanao by some selected military officers of armed forces from abroad and from the Philippines.
- According to information issued by the US State Department it primarily operates in the Southern Philippines with members occasionally traveling to Manila, but the group expanded its operations to Malaysia the year when it abducted foreigners from two different resorts.
- Among other things the group financed its activities by demanding ransoms upon kidnapping of wealthy business men and foreign tourists in the Southern Philippines and in the Malaysian part of North Borneo.
- The basic funds and arms of the Abu Sayaff Group were provided by US covert operators, probably connected with the CIA. Usama Bin Laden (who is suspected to be wire-puller of the destruction of the World Trade Center at New York on 11th. Sebtember 2001) could have been the principal courier either for the Abu Sayaff funds or the arms or both.
- Probably the group receives support from Islamic extremists in the Middle East and South Asia.
- 1978: The Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) originates from its seperation from the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)
The roots of the Abu Sayyaf Group trace back to the era of Marcos' successor, President Corazon Aquino, who in 1986/87 started peace-negotiations with one of the founders of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), Nur Misuari, who already had been in exile in Lybia for some years. These negotiations totally failed and above of all they caused on the island of Basilan - later also on Jolo and on the Tawi-Tawi Islands - to the desillusion of his numerous former followers. The group of retired MNLF combatants suspected Misuari to be a betrayer and he lost all their confidence. New idols like Ayatollah Khomeini (big posters of him had been distributed in the remote MNLF jungle camps by Iranian missionaries) and Islamic resistance fighters fighting from bases in Pakistan against the communist regime at Kabul that had been established by Sowjet tanks in Afghanistan had become the new heros of the Islamic world. Some of later Abu Sayyaf Group members got their first military physical training in these camps situated on both sides of the Pakistan Afghan border and later they had been trained by Afghan Talibans.
Mainly the former MNLF activists were deeply disappointed about the surrender of their former leader Misuari and according to their opinion about the disdain of the Islamic influence in the policy of the MNLF. Consequently, on Basilan there were the two former MNLF activists Ustadz Wahab Akbar and Ustadz Abdurajak Janjalani who united more and more followers in their renewal movement that they called "Al Harakatul al Islamiya" (Islamic Movement). Akbar, who had been trained in Egypt, and Janjalani had the vision to create a "pure" Islamic Society and an independent Islamic State on the Philippine islands between Mindanao and Borneo and later, too, to extend the state on to the southern main island of the Philippines, on Mindanao.
Before Abdurajak Janjalani returned from Afghanistan and before he became the Islamic Authority on Basilan and was able to rally round a lot of young talented people who had studied in countries of the Near and Middle East Akbar already had worked for the aim that the youth had to read and to study the Koran exclusively in Arabic language. It was at the end of the 80's when Janjalani succeeded to return indirectly to Basilan from abroad by using some detours. Instead to return immediately to his native country after he had studied the Islamic religion and military science in Saudi Arabia and Lybia (for a long period it had been the exile of Nur Misuary and some other MNLF leaders) he had joined the moujahideen in Afghanistan to fight the Sowjet Russian occupation of the country. It is said that he served under the command of Professor Abdul Rasul Abu Sayyaf who had built up his guerilla group in 1986. Later on Basilan Janjalani adopted the - programatic? - name of his former commander.
According to unconfirmed information he was a fearless warrior in the Afghan war and the respect among his mostly young followers on Basilan is based on this rumor. He was considered as a contrast to the MNLF leaders of Misuari who were suspected to cooperate with the Philippine government at Manila and to betray the Islamic population. In 1989 the "Jihad" in Afghanistan ended with the retreat of the last Russian troops. And within a few days only Abu Sayyaf's name had become famous to all Islamic believers on Basilan and at Zamboanga the city facing Basilan from Mindanao.
At the beginning the training of the mujaheddins for guerilla warfare had been undertaken by the CIA with the active collaboration of secret, usually, intelligence, services of the armed forces or selected military officers in various countries, including officers of the armed forces of Philippines. Later, when the Russians had pulled out of Afghanistan in 1989, the mujaheddins either returned to their home countries or proceeded to other countries and put their Afghan war military experience at the service of certain fundamentalist causes of Islam. In the case of the Filipino Muslim mujaheddins, most came back to various parts of Mindanao from their bases in and around Peshawar at Pakistan. John K. Cooley writes in his book, 'Unholy Wars': "This group (of Filipino Muslim Mujaheddins) was the core of an armed guerilla band of several hundred men who had moved from its base at Peshawar (Pakistan) to the Southern Philippine Islands after the end of the Afghan war. Under the name of the Abu Sayyaf group, it operated on the fringe of the Moros Muslim insurgency."
The evidence is overwhelming - unassailable in my mind - that the CIA was the procreator of the Abu Sayyaf Group and that some of Philippine military officers acted as midwives at its delivery and who nursed the hooligans under illegal, if not, at least, questionable circumstances that enabled the latter to pursue their criminal activities to this very day.
- 1991: The Abu Sayyaf Group splits off the MNLF. Its leader is Abdurajik Abubakar Janjalani.
- 1996: The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) agrees a peace-treaty with the Philippine government - an essential agreement is the integration of 7,500 former MNLF fighters into the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) and into the Philippine National Police (PNP)
- However, already former MNLF members who had been integrated into the armed forces before kept and maintained their links to their former comrades, inclusive to the ones of the Abu Sayyaf Group - and even more important is: Very often there are family ties between them.
- Abu Sayaff fighters were initially recruited to be volunteer mujaheddins to fight the American surrogate war in Afghanistan in the early 90s.
- Till 1993 Abu Sayyaf was an essential factor of distabilization in the area of the Southern Philippines. It was scored as a kind of operational subcommand by all reactionary powers to create chaos and conflicts between the different religions in Southern Philippines.
- The negotions from 1993 till 1996 between the MNLF and the Ramos government held in Indonesia succeeded and on September 2, 1996 they put their signatures under a final peace-treaty.
Leader (important Persons)
Khaddafy Janjalani is reputed to be the leader of the Abu Sayyaf Group. However, countless times the chairman of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), Hashim Salamat, was named as leader of the Abu Sayyaf Group by Western medias. The commander of the Secret Service, General José Calimlim, certainly was highly pleased about this successful disinformation of the public. To put Salamat, the chairman of the most important and biggest Moro resistance movement, into one pot together with the Abu Sayyaf Group is not just a dangerous nonsense and an error - but there is a methgod behind it. Finally, the former President Joseph Estrada himself mentioned very often in public speeches to declare "the total war to all Moros rebels" and he threatened "to pulverize" all Moro resistance movements without making any difference between them.
Khadaffy Janjalani "Daf" took up Islamic studies in Marawi City, and received a crash course in military training in Pakistan. Recognized as the "Amir" of the Basilan group. Married to Sherma, his first cousin and the daughter of Ustadz Hussein Manatad, one of the religious directors of the Tabuk, Mosque in Isabela, Basilan.
Before Khaddafy Janjalani had served in the Philippine National Police (PNP) and for some time he had been under supervision of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). Up till today it is not clear yet whether he was released, or whether he was able to escape, or whether he even is respectively was active in a certain mission ordered by the Philippine government.
At the beginning of the nineties a new component was brought in the game that is not at all complimentary neither for the Armed Forces of the Philippines nor for the Secret Service. In this interrelation I just concentrate on Edwin Angeles. He, an agent of the Command Security, suddenly converted to the Islamic religion and within a short time he became one of the field commanders of the Abu Sayyaf Group and he was responsible for some of its military operations. In 1995 Angeles turned his back on Abu Sayyaf and disappeared; and in January 1999 he was accidentally found and shot by security guards. Already one month earlier one of the founder of the Abu Sayyaf Group, Abdurajak Abubakar Janjalani, had been killed in a clash with armed forces. Immediately afterwards his brother, Khaddafy Janjalani, took over the leadership of the ASG.
Edwin Angeles who is better known as Ibrahim Yakub within the ASG had excellent connections to the miltary secret service of the AFP South Command (it is responsible for the whole area of the armed forces in the Southern Philippines) and to the Intelligence Service (Secret Service) of the Philippine National Police (PNP) and he advocated kidnapping as an important mean of the organization in order to get an income.
Aldam Tilao alias ABU SABAYA flamboyant character made him a natural for the job of ASG spokesman, made his media debut only on April 2000. A veteran of the Chad wars in central Africa and a former Moro National Liberation Front Bangsamoro member. Sabaya took up engineering courses in Zamboanga A.E. Colleges.
The commanders Mujib Agga Susuka, Said Suaib, and Abu Pula Jumdail are (were?) standing behind Galib Andang. All of them still had to pay off "old bills" to Misuari who had been the negotiator during the kidnapping in 2000 and who had been the leader of the MNLF since he was considered as member of the apparatus of state. For example the father of Mujib who had been an old and close follower of Misuari and a MNLF province commander was killed in a shoot-out with the Armed Forces of the Philippines some years ago. And Mujib himself had asked Misuari for political and finacial support after he had agreed the peace treaty in 1996, and Mujib felt badly snubbed when Misuari simply ignored him.
Andang had contacted the group already in 1995 and finally joined it in 1996. A smoker (a habit not allowed among Muslim fundamentalists), "ROBOT" gained notoriety as a rapist and outlaw in Sulu. He is a relative of top MNLF leaders and local politicians in the southern provinces. Led the kidnapping in the Malaysian dive resort of Sipadan.
Mujib Susukan alias MUJIB, Son of MNLF leader Commander Susukan, Mujib is the known as the silent-type operator; a high school drop-out. Together with Sabaya sports long hair and has a penchant for wearing sunglasses. Susukan's father carved a legend among the Islamistic rebels in the Philippines as he was the first MNLF fighter who shot down an Air Force plane.
Hector Janjalani is businessman by profession, and involved in various trading activities. It was the perfect cover for an intelligence officer. Compared to his younger brother Khaddafy, Hector is more outspoken. Arrested in December 22, 2000 by Manila police in the Quiapo underpass, and currently detained at Camp Crame.
From the originally 20 men on Basilan at the beginning of the nineties the Abu Sayyaf Group had grown up to about 600 member in the midth of the decade and at the end (now inclusive Jolo) up to more than 1,000 members. At the turn of the year 2000/2001 most probably more than 3,000 persons call themselves "Abus".
The US State Department assumes that the Abu Sayyaf Group has about 200 core fighters, but more than 2,000 individuals motivated by the prospect of receiving ransom payments for foreign hostages allegedly joined the group just in August 2000.
Some ASG members have studied or worked in the Middle East and developed ties to mujaheddins while fighting in Afghanistan and being trained by Talibans.
Another movie-star-handsome young man was nabbed on terrorism and he had a story almost as chilling as Amrozi's in Indonesia. Abdulmukim Edris, a 30-year-old computer school graduate, was arrested in Manila and charged a bombing of a shopping mall in the southern Philippine city of Zamboanga. Police said Edris was planning more mayhem, this time for the country's capital, including an attack on the U.S. embassy, shopping malls and the stock exchange, apparently by using truck bombs.
President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo said at a press conference at which a silent Edris was displayed to the media: "He's the top bomber, the No. 1 bomber, of the Abu Sayyaf."
- Within the phase of the foundation of the ASG there were also two young members in the cadre of leaders besides of Janlalani and Akbar. It was Abdul Ashmad who had been responsible for reconnaissance and Edwin Angeles who mostly led any military operations of the group.
According to information out of the US State Depertment Abdurajak Abubakar Janjalani was killed in a clash with the Philippine police and/or army on 18th. December 1998.
Galib Andang alias "COMMANDER ROBOT" was regarded as man who carries the main responsibility of the hostage-taking in 2000. Andang is a notorious criminal who already was been to mischief on the Sulu Archipelago for a long time and who was regarded as wire puller of numerous acts of blackmail and kidnapping in the area.
- A lot of member of Abu Sayyaf Group are known to the authorities by name and there are even photos of them. Nevertheless, the Philippine Police respectively the Military is not able (or does not want?) to arrest anyone of them.
Bakkal Hapilon alias Abu
Jumadil Arad alias Abu Huraira
Nur Mohammed Umong
Hamsiraji Sali alias José Ramirez Burkis
Mauran Ampul alias Tiger Lock
Radji Sali alias José Unding
Abu Pula alias Dr. Abu
There are not any secured and confirmed information about the organizational structure of the Abu Sayyaf Group avalable.
It seems on the island of Jolo the ASG is divided into the socalled Paticul fraction and into the Talipo fraction. Obviously, they are called this way according to the operational area of the ASG fighters and the whereabouts of the former Sipadan hostages.
Influence on the Government, People, and Media
The influence on the Philippine government, on the people of Filipinos, and on the medias of the country are extensively unknown. However, there are pieces of circumstantial evidences that the ASG is supported by persons of all social classes - depending on the polical convictions of the persons in question.
Since the ASG did not understand itself as a secret organization up to the period just after its foundation it was susceptible to be filtered in by elements who had set completely anything else as goal than the original ones. These original aims had been stated by Ashmad as follows:
- Removal of all religious Catholic symbols from Muslim communities,
- it is forbidden to any foreign fishermen to trawl in the seas around Basilan and the Sulu Islands, and
- Islamic ministries (ulema) take part in any negotiations with the government.
The Abu Sayaff is pursuing a purely criminal agenda. The Abu Sayaff Group is fighting to convert crime into an industry for their group's profit.
Engages in bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, and extortion to promote an independent Islamic state in western Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago, areas in the southern Philippines heavily populated by Muslims.
11th. September 2001
We do not know anything about an official statement of the Aby Sayyaf Group in relation to the assassination on the World Trade Center at New York dated September 11, 2001.
Starting 1992 the Abu Sayyaf Group drew the world's attention to its first kidnappings and it did not even shy away from kidnapping a five years old boy (Luis "Ton-Ton" Biek) and his grandpa. They were not released again until the ransom had been paid. Obviously, this "successful" action encouraged the whole Basilan ASG; because since then, besides of attacks on public institutions, kidnapping has become an essential element of its strategy.
- In general : Murder, kidnapping, rape, fire-raising
Kidnapping of most rich businessmen and wealthy tourists, blaickmailing of ransom money, and terrorist attacks against civil institutions and facilities.
During an attack on the small town of Ipil in 1995 more than 50 people were killed and on a further attack on some churches and a shopping center at Zamboanga a few days before Christmas 1998 more than 60 people were seriously injured.
In brief the attack on Ipil in 1995 happened as follows: The funds that had been paid to the ASG most probably by US covert operators either failed to come or did not come on time. Thus, the "Abu Sayaff troops" raided the town of Ipil in the province of Zamboanga del Sur. Their initial intention certainly was to rob some banks in Ipil. Unexpectedly, however, a group of soldiers - not belonging to the Ipil command - who were eating in a restaurant engaged them in a firefight. The shoot-out drew the attention of the local police and military units who earlier had been reportedly ordered confined to their camps and were, thus, caught flatfooted by the Abu Sayaff raid. To divert the attention of the responding police and military units, the Abu Sayaff bandits razed Ipil to the ground.
Hostage-taking 2000: The Abu Sayyaf Group kidnapped more than 30 foreigners from the small Malaysian island of Sipadan situated near Borneo. These hostages were from Germany, France, South Africa, Finnland, and an American tourists.
- MNLF: There are some former members of the MNLF, whose leader is Nur Misuari, who cooperate directly or indirectly with Abu Sayyaf. But, thus the authority of the state, too, are in the game at least on the periphery.
In the estimation of local sources you can rely on the captured hum comes in usful to any politicians and army officers on their endeavours for avoiding any clearing up of Abu Sayyaf Group actions - to say nothing about any final sentencing.
- CIA?: Incidentally, bits of information are emerging to the effect that the Abu Sayaff Group was an indirect creation of the CIA. We are not sure if this is necessarily true, since you have always to be cautious about attributing indiscriminately to the CIA anything that goes wrong in the Philippines.
The funds and arms of the Abu Sayaff were provided by US covert operators, probably connected with the CIA. Usama Bin Laden could have been the principal courier for either the Abu Sayaff funds or the arms or both.
The penchant of some people to routinely blame the CIA for things that are among the responsibilities of the Philippine government sound stridently puerile and irresponsible. However, some information about the Abu Sayaff Group from Filipino sources and from readings of American newspapers mainly through the Internet must not be ignored. Piecing discrete bits of information together makes out a case, at least, pro tanto that the Abu Sayaff might, indeed, have been a creation of the CIA and had been covertly supported by select military officers during the administration of President Ramos.
- Usama Bin Laden?: Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, supposedly a colleague of Bin Ladin, was directly implicated as one of the bombers of the World Trade Center. Ramzi becomes immediately relevant to the discussion not only because of his supposed connections with Bin Laden but more so because soon after the kidnapping of the Sipadan tourists, the kidnappers who had proclaimed themselves as members of the Abu Sayyaf Group announced that one of their demands was the release of Ramzi from US prisons.
- Philippine Authorities: After September 11, 2001 the authorities announced to intensify any legal proceeedings against the International Islamic Relief Organisation (IIRO) and against the NGOs that support the IIRO. The IIRO that is run by Mohamed Jamal Khalifa (a brother-in-law of Usama Bin Laden) is accused to finance the Abu Sayaf Group covered by the mask of humanitarian aid. Actually, Philippine authorities knew and accepted that Khalifa had spent some time in Southern Philippines and in 1996 he suddenly disappeared. Training programs of Indonesian Laskar Jihad members were financed by IIRO funds. These trainings took place on Mindanao and there had been at least an informal partizipation of the ASG.
- Province government of Basilan?: The gouvernor of Basilan (in 2001/02) was nobody else than Wahab Akbar, who secretely held the reins of all kidnappings executed by the ASG since spring time 2000 and most probably he collected a big share of the blackmailed ransom money that had been paid since then.
- Officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines(AFP): According to reliable information the Abu Sayyaf partisans were given military intelligence services IDs, safe-houses, safe-conduct passes, firearms, cell phones and various sorts of financial support even by knowledge of high officers of the AFP.
Edwin Angeles, a former leader of the Abu Sayaff in Basilan, told in public after the elections of 1995, that it was the Abu Sayaff Group that was responsible for the raid and the razing down of the town of Ipil in Zamboanga del Sur in early 1995. In that raid, Angeles mentioned the Abu Sayyaf raiders were reportedly provided with military vehicles, mortars and assorted firearms. All this time, Angeles was "handled" by the police officer Rodolfo Mendoza who is chief superintendent now.
- Informers: Because the Abu Sayyaf was operating on the fringe of the Muslim insurgency in the country, its partisans were enticed by certain officers of the armed forces to serve as informers on the activities of the Muslim insurgents in Southern Mindanao. Marites D. Vitug and Glenda M. Gloria name, at least, three military and police officers as coddlers or handlers of the Abu Sayyaf in their book, Under the Crescent Moon: Rebellion in Mindanao. One was the commanding general of the Marines at that time, Brig. Gen. Guillermo Ruiz; the other two were police officers, Chief Supt. Leandro Mendoza and Chief Supt. Rodolfo Mendoza.
- Their mission, most likely, was to get the Abu Sayyaf partisans as their sources of information on the movements of the Muslim insurgents and probably of their allies from other Muslim countries and as friendly pawns in the game of divide and rule as far as the Muslim insurgency is concerned. To that end, these officers did not only "handle" the Abu Sayyaf, they cuddled them, trained them, protected them, passed on military equipment and funds from the CIA and its support network, and probably even from the intelligence funds of the armed forces to them.
- In all likelihood, Gen. Ruiz (today a retired military officer) got involved in the Abu Sayyaf hostage release negotiations because he was supposedly trusted by Abu Sayyaf partisans for having been a "coddler" of theirs in the not-too-distant past.
The Abu Sayyaf Group is the the smallest and most radical of the Islamic separatist groups operating in the Southern Philippines.
However, Abu Sayyaf must not be mistaken for the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF):
The MILF and the Abu Sayaff should not be lumped together as if they are one and the same dog wearing different collars. They are not. The MILF is pursuing a political agenda - the Abu Sayaff is pursuing a purely criminal agenda. The MILF is fighting to retain their own culture, their own religion, their own identity whereas the Abu Sayaff is just fighting to convert crime into an industry for their group's profit.
Therefore, the MILF should be treated differently from the Abu Sayaff Group. The Abu Sayaff should, thus, be hunted down as plain criminals by the police and/or armed forces and punished accordingly. The atrocities they had inflicted upon their hostages in Basilan and in Sulu show that they deserve only the strong arm of the law. The policemen and soldiers are correct in going after them hammer and thongs. The Abu Sayaff Group must not be allowed to flout the law and get away with it.
The MILF is still fighting just for the independence of the Moros (Islamic population) from the Philippines.
- March 2000: a big military offensive starts against the MILF (state of siege, recruitment of paramiltary troops, complete closing of roads, banks closed, no flights in certain areas, arbitrary arrests) that had been approved by President Estrada (dismissed in January 2001).
- September 2000: After the end of the Sipadan hostage crisis the Armed Forces of the Philippines of the Central Mindanao Command declared the "total war" against the MILF in order to terrorize the civilians in around Jolo City.
- The aim was to improve the strike power of the Counter-Terrorist Force (CTF) against hostage-taking and kidnapping. The CTF was a "foreign aid" from Washington to Manila and it is a military command of two companies of the AFP that is especially trained by American counter insurgency experts. These companies will be supported by Marines in cases of urgent need.
- November 2001: Any members of the FBI, CIA, and American GI's who were present in the Philippines according to the bilateral "Visiting Forces Agreement" (VFA) were asked to increase their activities in the area.
- January 2002: The USA started a miltary manoeuvre in the Philippines. About 600 American and 4,000 Philippine soldiers started an offensive against the Abu Sayyaf Group in Zamboanga.
- February 2002: About 30 US elite soldiers arrived on Basilan. The plans were to send more than 150 American soldiers to the island. Their task was to train Philippine soldiers in fighting terrorism in jungle areas.
- April 2002: Three bombs went off in public places in the southern Philippines city of General Santos killing fifteen people and injuring more than 70.
- August 2002: A group of Jehovah's witness Christian sect who worked as door-to-door salespeople were kiddnaped by Suspected Muslim rebels on the Philippine island of Jolo. The group of three men and five women were working for a cosmetics company when they were abducted in the town of Patikul.
- February 2004: The group claimed it planted a bomb aboard a ferry that caught fire in Manila Bay, killing more than 100 people in the worst terrorist attack in the Philippines.
- December 2004: A bombing killed at least 14 people and wounded 70 others on December 12 in General Santos, a bustling, predominantly Christian city of 500,000 people about 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) south of Manila.
- February 2005 (Valentine's Day): 3 bombs jolted the country and turned the celebration of Valentine's Day into a nightmare. The bombs exploded at General Santos City (6:30 pm), at Davao City (7:00 pm), and at Makati City (8:00 pm). At least 12 persons were killed and about 140 persons were seriously wounded. The Abu Sayyaf leader Abu Solaiman immediately claimed responsibility in a call to the Radio Station DZBB between the explosions.
We do not know whether the Abu Sayyaf Group runs a website in the net.
Phil. Chronicle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Phil. History (Chap. 1)